The Chinese-made J-15 made the successful landing on the Liaoning, a former Soviet carrier, during recent exercises, the defence ministry said in a report on Sunday.
The Liaoning went into service in September in a symbolic milestone for China's growing military muscle.
"The successful landing... has always been seen as a symbol of the operating combat capability for an aircraft carrier," Zhang Junshe, a vice director at the military's Naval Affairs Research Institute, told state television.
"This is a landmark event for China's aircraft carrier... and (moves it) one step closer to combat readiness."
China bought a stripped-down carrier from Ukraine nearly 10 years ago and refurbished it at the north eastern port of Dalian.
Construction of the vessel, formerly known as the Varyag, was commissioned by the former Soviet Union more than 20 years ago, but work halted with the sudden collapse of the Soviet bloc.
During the recent tests, highly technical cable landing technology was employed, the ministry said.
The take off of the J-15 was also successful, it added.
Since the carrier entered service, the crew have completed more than 100 training and test programmes, the ministry said.
The Liaoning - named for the north eastern province which includes Dalian - is not expected to be fully operational for another three years at least.
China is also working on building a fully domestically made carrier sometime in the future.
A top Taiwan intelligence official said earlier this year that China had already decided to build two aircraft carriers.
However, despite rumours that work has already begun, there is no evidence construction has started.