The US space agency says it is the first time since the 1970s it has studied such a phenomenon both from orbit and with a weather station on the planet's surface.
Chief Mars scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Rich Zurek, says the Martian dust storm is covering large regions of the planet.
"It has covered a fairly extensive region with its dust haze and it is in a part of the planet where some regional storms in the past have grown into global dust hazes," he said.
"One thing we want to learn is why do some Martian dust storms get to this size and stop growing, while others this size keep growing and go global."
Regional dust storms expanded and affected vast areas of the red planet in 2001 and 2007.
Following decades of observations, NASA experts know there is a seasonal pattern to the largest Martian dust storms.
The most recent dust storm season began a few weeks ago with the beginning of the spring in the southern hemisphere.
As of November 16, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter detected a warming of the atmosphere at about 25 kilometres above the storm.
Since then, the region's atmosphere has increased by about 25 degrees.
NASA says the phenomenon is due to dust being lofted above the surface absorbing sunlight.
Warmer temperatures have also been detected in a "hot spot" near northern polar latitudes due to changes in atmospheric circulation.
NASA says its robot Opportunity could could be affected if the storm continues to spread out, since it depends on solar energy for its power supply.
"More dust in the air or falling onto its solar panels would reduce the solar-powered rover's energy supply for daily operations," NASA said.