Map: 200 years of US military interventions

Map: 200 years of US military interventions

Map: 200 years of US military interventions

Updated 10 November 2014, 13:20 AEDT

As the United States and its allies fight military campaigns in Iraq and Syria, we've mapped more than two centuries of overseas US military deployments.

As the United States fights military campaigns in Iraq and Syria, take a look at the long history of overseas US military deployments.

By Simon Elvery

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A recent report by the United States Congressional Research Service details hundreds of overseas military deployments spanning more than two centuries. The scope of and justification for the deployments vary wildly, from conflicts with pirates and bandits to formal declarations of war against an array of sovereign nations.

Explore where, when and why US armed forces have been deployed using our interactive map.

Pirates, raiders and ruffians

Adventurers, brigands, freebooters, privateers, pirates, raiders, ruffians, smugglers and thieves. These terms are all used to describe the wide variety of groups the US military fought in early conflicts.

Pirates were a common enemy on the high seas, as were cross-border raiders preying on outlying US townships and settlements. During the eight years between 1815 and 1823, there were more than 3,000 pirate attacks on "merchantmen" (non-naval vessels) reported, a rate of more than one per day.

There is a gap of more than a century between the final two reported actions against pirates. Conflicts with pirates seem to wind down throughout the 19th century, finishing with US forces destroying the pirate ship Forward in 1870. But modern times have seen a renewal of US naval forces being deployed against pirates, with the report noting a 2012 operation by "Special Operations Forces" to rescue Ms Jessica Buchanan "who had been kidnapped by a group linked to Somali pirates and financiers".

The surrender of William Walker

Although the colonial expansionism of the United States was coming to an end by the mid-1850s, some vestiges remained. William Walker was a filibuster—someone conducting unauthorised military expeditions—who made several attempts to establish English-speaking colonies in Latin America.

Walker's expeditions met with varying degrees of success and he was briefly, beginning in July 1856, the president of the Republic of Nicaragua. By later that year his grip on power had come unstuck and in 1857, under pressure from a coalition of central American armies, he surrendered to the United States. The US Navy was deployed to accept his surrender and repatriate him to New York City, where he received a hero's welcome.

After damaging his reputation by blaming the US Navy for his defeat in Nicaragua, Walker quickly set off on a new expedition. However, it was very short-lived, with the Navy's Home Squadron deployed to arrest Walker and once again return him to the US. Walker's arrest attracted heavy public criticism and the legality of the Navy's actions came into question.

Bluff, bluster and going too far

The report contains a multitude of references to "naval demonstrations" being conducted. Demonstrations and displays of force appear to have been a common tactic employed to further US interests in a variety of situations. As late as 1933, there were attempts to prevent war breaking out by "demonstrating" America's military power.

The attacks by US armed forces weren't always above board and the descriptions of conflicts sometimes appear to be little more than vengeful reprisals. One such instance occurred in 1824 when 200 men under the command of Commodore David Porter attacked a town in Puerto Rico which had "insulted American naval officers". After the attack in which Commodore Porter "forced an apology" he was court-martialled for "overstepping" his authority.

A number of the early conflicts listed, while undertaken by official US military forces—as opposed to privateers or filibusters like William Walker—ended up being subsequently disavowed by central government authorities.

Some of these incidents seem to have resulted from a lack of modern communications technologies, such as an incident where Commodore T.A.C Jones, "believing war had come" occupied Monterey, California (at the time, Mexican territory).

Other actions seem to have been disavowed for the benefit of diplomacy such an 1812 incident in east Florida (then Spanish territory) where possession of territory "was obtained by General George Matthews in so irregular a manner that his measures were disavowed by the President."

The legal authorisation for military action has played an important role and continues to be controversial. The legitimacy of actions of individual naval commanders seems to have been regularly called into question in the early years.

In more recent times, the power of the President to commit US forces to conflict has been more of a focus. Since 1973, the War Powers Resolution has been an important part of the legal framework around the use of military force. The majority of post-1980 deployments listed in the report are sourced from the President's regular reporting to Congress required under the legislation and note that the reporting is "consistent with the War Powers Resolution."

The wars: declared and undeclared

The report lists deployments made as part of 11 official declarations of war and eight undeclared wars.

While the US did not officially enter World War II until December 1941, deployments listed for 1940 and 1941 seem to be strategic responses to the spreading war in Europe and Asia. The US deployed troops to guard naval and air bases "leased" from Britain in Newfoundland, Bermuda, St Lucia, Bahamas, Jamaica, Antigua, Trinidad and British Guiana.

Greenland and Iceland were both "taken under the protection" of the United States in 1941 before the US's entry into WWII.

Despite the US military's significant involvement in major conflicts such as the Korean War, the Vietnam War and several Middle East conflicts, there hasn't been an official US declaration of war since WWII. The US constitution specifically gives the US Congress the power to declare war, but provides no specifics describing how such a declaration should be made.

Although none of the major conflicts since WWII are officially declared wars, in most cases—including the Vietnam War, the Persian Gulf War, the War in Afghanistan and the Iraq War—the conflicts were authorised by resolutions of US Congress.

Does the map include every deployment?

The map is based on a list compiled by the Congressional Research Service. This is what it says about what is—and is not—included:

"The following list reviews hundreds of instances in which the United States has used military forces abroad in situations of military conflict or potential conflict to protect US citizens or promote US interests.

"The list does not include covert actions or numerous instances in which US forces have been stationed abroad since World War II in occupation forces or for participation in mutual security organisations, base agreements, or routine military assistance or training operations...

"Disaster relief, and routine alliance stationing and training exercises are not included here, nor are the Civil and Revolutionary Wars and the continual use of US military units in the exploration, settlement, and pacification of the western part of the United States...

"Because of differing judgments over the actions to be included, other lists may include more or fewer instances."

The report was released on September 15, 2014 and the list of deployments for 2014 is incomplete.

A deployment listed in 2001 and related to the US's response to the September 11 attacks was excluded from the map because the entry did not include location details.

Timeline of US deployments

1798 - 1800: Dominican Republic (Undeclared Naval War with France)

This contest included land actions, such as that in the Dominican Republic, city of Puerto Plata, where marines captured a French privateer under the guns of the forts. Congress authorized military action through a series of statutes.

1801 - 1805: Tripoli (The First Barbary War)

The First Barbary War included the USS George Washington and Philadelphia affairs and the Eaton expedition, during which a few marines landed with United States Agent William Eaton to raise a force against Tripoli in an effort to free the crew of the Philadelphia. Tripoli declared war but not the United States, although Congress authorized U.S. military action by statute.

1806: Mexico

Mexico (Spanish territory). Captain Z. M. Pike, with a platoon of troops, invaded Spanish territory at the headwaters of the Rio Grande on orders from General James Wilkinson. He was made prisoner without resistance at a fort he constructed in present-day Colorado, taken to Mexico, and later released after seizure of his papers.

1806 - 1810: Gulf of Mexico

Gulf of Mexico. American gunboats operated from New Orleans against Spanish and French privateers off the Mississippi Delta, chiefly under Captain John Shaw and Master Commandant David Porter.

1810: West Florida

West Florida (Spanish territory). Governor Claiborne of Louisiana, on orders of the President, occupied with troops territory in dispute east of the Mississippi River as far as the Pearl River, later the eastern boundary of Louisiana. He was authorized to seize as far east as the Perdido River.

1812: Amelia Island, Florida

Amelia Island and other parts of east Florida, then under Spain. Temporary possession was authorized by President Madison and by Congress, to prevent occupation by any other power; but possession was obtained by General George Matthews in so irregular a manner that his measures were disavowed by the President.

1812 - 1815: Great Lakes, Gulf Coast (War of 1812)

War of 1812. On June 18, 1812, the United States declared war between the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Among the issues leading to the war were British interception of neutral ships and blockades of the United States during British hostilities with France.

1813: West Florida

West Florida (Spanish territory). On authority given by Congress, General Wilkinson seized Mobile Bay in April with 600 soldiers. A small Spanish garrison gave way. The United States advanced into disputed territory to the Perdido River, as projected in 1810. No fighting.

1813 - 1814: Nukahiva, Marquesas Islands

U.S. forces built a fort on the island of Nukahiva to protect three prize ships which had been captured from the British.

1814: Florida

Spanish Florida. General Andrew Jackson took Pensacola and drove out the British, with whom the United States was at war.

1814 - 1825: Caribbean

Engagements between pirates and American ships or squadrons took place repeatedly, especially ashore and offshore about Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Yucatan. Three thousand pirate attacks on merchantmen were reported between 1815 and 1823. In 1822 Commodore James Biddle employed a squadron of two frigates, four sloops of war, two brigs, four schooners, and two gunboats in the West Indies.

1815: Algiers (The Second Barbary War)

The second Barbary War was declared against the United States by the Dey of Algiers of the Barbary states, an act not reciprocated by the United States. Congress did authorize a military expedition by statutes. A large fleet under Decatur attacked Algiers and obtained indemnities.

1815: Tripoli

After securing an agreement from Algiers, Decatur demonstrated with his squadron at Tunis and Tripoli, where he secured indemnities for offenses during the War of 1812.

1816: Spanish Florida

Spanish Florida. United States forces destroyed Nicholls Fort, called also Negro Fort, which harbored raiders making forays into United States territory.

1816 - 1818: Spanish Florida (First Seminole War)

The Seminole Indians, whose area was a haven for escaped slaves and border ruffians, were attacked by troops under Generals Jackson and Gaines and pursued into northern Florida. Spanish posts were attacked and occupied, British citizens executed. In 1819 the Floridas were ceded to the United States.

1817: Amelia Island, Florida

Amelia Island (Spanish territory off Florida). Under orders of President Monroe, United States forces landed and expelled a group of smugglers, adventurers, and freebooters.

1818: Oregon

The USS Ontario, dispatched from Washington, landed at the Columbia River and in August took possession of Oregon territory. Britain had conceded sovereignty but Russia and Spain asserted claims to the area.

1820 - 1823: Africa

Naval units raided the slave traffic pursuant to the 1819 act of Congress.

1822: Cuba

United States naval forces suppressing piracy landed on the northwest coast of Cuba and burned a pirate station.

1823: Cuba

Brief landings in pursuit of pirates occurred April 8 near Escondido; April 16 near Cayo Blanco; July 11 at Siquapa Bay; July 21 at Cape Cruz; and October 23 at Camrioca.

1824: Cuba

In October the USS Porpoise landed bluejackets near Matanzas in pursuit of pirates. This was during the cruise authorized in 1822.

1824: Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico (Spanish territory). Commodore David Porter with a landing party attacked the town of Fajardo which had sheltered pirates and insulted American naval officers. He landed with 200 men in November and forced an apology. Commodore Porter was later court-martialed for overstepping his powers.

1825: Cuba

In March cooperating American and British forces landed at Sagua La Grande to capture pirates.

1827: Greece

In October and November landing parties hunted pirates on the islands of Argenteire, Miconi, and Androse.

1831 - 1832: Falkland Islands

Captain Duncan of the USS Lexington investigated the capture of three American sealing vessels and sought to protect American interests.

1832: Sumatra

February 6 to 9. A naval force landed and stormed a fort to punish natives of the town of Quallah Battoo for plundering the American ship Friendship.

1833: Buenos Aires, Argentina

October 31 to November 15. A force was sent ashore at Buenos Aires to protect the interests of the United States and other countries during an insurrection.

1835 - 1836: Peru

December 10, 1835, to January 24, 1836, and August 31 to December 7, 1836. Marines protected American interests in Callao and Lima during an attempted revolution.

1836: Mexico

General Gaines occupied Nacogdoches (Texas), disputed territory, from July to December during the Texan war for independence, under orders to cross the "imaginary boundary line" if an Indian outbreak threatened.

1838 - 1839: Sumatra

December 24, 1838, to January 4, 1839. A naval force landed to punish natives of the towns of Quallah Battoo and Muckie (Mukki) for depredations on American shipping.

1840: Fiji Islands

July. Naval forces landed to punish natives for attacking American exploring and surveying parties.

1841: Drummond Island

Drummond Island, Kingsmill Group. A naval party landed to avenge the murder of a seaman by the natives.

1841: Upolu Island, Samoa

February 24. A naval party landed and burned towns after the murder of an American seaman on Upolu Island.

1842: Mexico

Commodore T.A.C. Jones, in command of a squadron long cruising off California, occupied Monterey, CA, on October 19, believing war had come. He discovered peace, withdrew, and saluted. A similar incident occurred a week later at San Diego.

1843: China

Sailors and marines from the St. Louis were landed after a clash between Americans and Chinese at the trading post in Canton.

1843: Africa

November 29 to December 16. Four United States vessels demonstrated and landed various parties (one of 200 marines and sailors) to discourage piracy and the slave trade along the Ivory Coast, and to punish attacks by the natives on American seamen and shipping.

1844: Mexico

President Tyler deployed U.S. forces to protect Texas against Mexico, pending Senate approval of a treaty of annexation. (Later rejected.) He defended his action against a Senate resolution of inquiry.

1846 - 1848: Mexico (Mexican War)

Mexican War. On May 13, 1846, the United States recognized the existence of a state of war with Mexico. After the annexation of Texas in 1845, the United States and Mexico failed to resolve a boundary dispute and President Polk said that it was necessary to deploy forces in Mexico to meet a threatened invasion.

1849: Smyrna

In July a naval force gained release of an American seized by Austrian officials.

1851: Turkey

After a massacre of foreigners (including Americans) at Jaffa in January, a demonstration by the Mediterranean Squadron was ordered along the Turkish (Levant) coast.

1851: Africa

Johanns Island (east of Africa). August. Forces from the U.S. sloop of war Dale exacted redress for the unlawful imprisonment of the captain of an American whaling brig.

1852 - 1853: Buenos Aires, Argentina

February 3 to 12, 1852; September 17, 1852, to April 1853. Marines were landed and maintained in Buenos Aires to protect American interests during a revolution.

1853: Nicaragua

March 11 to 13. U.S. forces landed to protect American lives and interests during political disturbances.

1853 - 1854: Japan

Commodore Perry and his naval expedition made a display of force leading to the "opening of Japan."

1853 - 1854: Ryukyu

Ryukyu and Bonin Islands. Commodore Perry on three visits before going to Japan and while waiting for a reply from Japan made a naval demonstration, landing marines twice, and secured a coaling concession from the ruler of Naha on Okinawa; he also demonstrated in the Bonin Islands with the purpose of securing facilities for commerce.

1853 - 1854: Bonin Islands

Ryukyu and Bonin Islands. Commodore Perry on three visits before going to Japan and while waiting for a reply from Japan made a naval demonstration, landing marines twice, and secured a coaling concession from the ruler of Naha on Okinawa; he also demonstrated in the Bonin Islands with the purpose of securing facilities for commerce.

1854: China

April 4 to June 15 to 17. American and English ships landed forces to protect American interests in and near Shanghai during Chinese civil strife.

1854: Nicaragua

July 9 to 15. Naval forces bombarded and burned San Juan del Norte (Greytown) to avenge an insult to the American Minister to Nicaragua.

1855: China

May 19 to 21. U.S. forces protected American interests in Shanghai and, from August 3 to 5, fought pirates near Hong Kong.

1855: Fiji Islands

September 12 to November 4. An American naval force landed to seek reparations for depredations on American residents and seamen.

1855: Uruguay

November 25 to 29. United States and European naval forces landed to protect American interests during an attempted revolution in Montevideo.

1856: Panama

Panama, Republic of New Grenada. September 19 to 22. U.S. forces landed to protect American interests during an insurrection.

1856: China

October 22 to December 6. U.S. forces landed to protect American interests at Canton during hostilities between the British and the Chinese, and to avenge an assault upon an unarmed boat displaying the United States flag.

1857: Nicaragua

April to May, November to December. In May Commander C.H. Davis of the United States Navy, with some marines, received the surrender of William Walker, who had been attempting to get control of the country, and protected his men from the retaliation of native allies who had been fighting Walker.

In November and December of the same year United States vessels Saratoga, Wabash, and Fulton opposed another attempt of William Walker on Nicaragua. Commodore Hiram Paulding's act of landing marines and compelling the removal of Walker to the United States was tacitly disavowed by Secretary of State Lewis Cass, and Paulding was forced into retirement.

1858: Uruguay

January 2 to 27. Forces from two United States warships landed to protect American property during a revolution in Montevideo.

1858: Fiji Islands

October 6 to 16. A marine expedition chastised natives for the murder of two American citizens at Waya.

1858 - 1859: Turkey

The Secretary of State requested a display of naval force along the Levant after a massacre of Americans at Jaffa and mistreatment elsewhere "to remind the authorities (of Turkey) of the power of the United States."

1859: Paraguay

Congress authorized a naval squadron to seek redress for an attack on a naval vessel in the Parana River during 1855. Apologies were made after a large display of force.

1859: Mexico

Two hundred United States soldiers crossed the Rio Grande in pursuit of the Mexican bandit Cortina.

1859: China

July 31 to August 2. A naval force landed to protect American interests in Shanghai.

1860: Angola

Angola, Portuguese West Africa. March 1. American residents at Kissembo called upon American and British ships to protect lives and property during problems with natives.

1860: Colombia

Colombia (Bay of Panama). September 27 to October 8. Naval forces landed to protect American interests during a revolution.

1863: Japan

July 16. The USS Wyoming retaliated against a firing on the American vessel Pembroke at Shimonoseki.

1864: Japan

July 14 to August 3. Naval forces protected the United States Minister to Japan when he visited Yedo to negotiate concerning some American claims against Japan, and to make his negotiations easier by impressing the Japanese with American power.

1864: Japan

September 4 to 14. Naval forces of the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands compelled Japan and the Prince of Nagato in particular to permit the Straits of Shimonoseki to be used by foreign shipping in accordance with treaties already signed.

1865: Panama

March 9 and 10. U.S. forces protected the lives and property of American residents during a revolution.

1866: China

From June 20 to July 7, U.S. forces punished an assault on the American consul at Newchwang.

1866: Mexico

To protect American residents, General Sedgwick and 100 men in November obtained surrender of Matamoras. After three days he was ordered by U.S. government to withdraw. His act was repudiated by the President.

1867: Nicaragua

Marines occupied Managua and Leon. Formosa. June 13. A naval force landed and burned a number of huts to punish the murder of the crew of a wrecked American vessel.

1868: Japan

Japan (Osaka, Hiolo, Nagasaki, Yokohama, and Negata). February 4 to 8, April 4 to May 12, June 12 and 13. U.S. forces were landed to protect American interests during the civil war in Japan.

1868: Uruguay

February 7 and 8, 19 to 26. U.S. forces protected foreign residents and the customhouse during an insurrection at Montevideo.

1868: Colombia

April. U.S. forces protected passengers and treasure in transit at Aspinwall during the absence of local police or troops on the occasion of the death of the president of Colombia.

1870: Mexico

June 17 and 18. U.S. forces destroyed the pirate ship Forward, which had been run aground about 40 miles up the Rio Tecapan.

1870: Hawaiian Islands

September 21. U.S. forces placed the American flag at half-mast upon the death of Queen Kalama, when the American consul at Honolulu would not assume responsibility for so doing.

1871: Korea

June 10 to 12. A U.S. naval force attacked and captured five forts to punish natives for depredations on Americans, particularly for murdering the crew of the General Sherman and burning the schooner, and for later firing on other American small boats taking soundings up the Salee River.

1873: Colombia

Colombia (Bay of Panama). May 7 to 22, September 23 to October 9. U.S. forces protected American interests during hostilities between local groups over control of the government of the State of Panama.

1873 - 1896: Mexico

United States troops crossed the Mexican border repeatedly in pursuit of cattle thieves and other brigands. There were some reciprocal pursuits by Mexican troops into border territory. Mexico protested frequently. Notable cases were at Remolina in May 1873 and at Las Cuevas in 1875. Washington orders often supported these excursions. Agreements between Mexico and the United States, the first in 1882, finally legitimized such raids. They continued intermittently, with minor disputes, until 1896.

1874: Hawaiian Islands

February 12 to 20. Detachments from American vessels were landed to preserve order and protect American lives and interests during the coronation of a new king.

1876: Mexico

May 18. An American force was landed to police the town of Matamoras temporarily while it was without other government.

1882: Egypt

July 14 to 18. American forces landed to protect American interests during warfare between British and Egyptians and looting of the city of Alexandria by Arabs.

1885: Colon, Panama

January 18 and 19. U.S. forces were used to guard the valuables in transit over the Panama Railroad, and the safes and vaults of the company during revolutionary activity. In March, April, and May in the cities of Colon and Panama, the forces helped reestablish freedom of transit during revolutionary activity.

1888: Korea

June. A naval force was sent ashore to protect American residents in Seoul during unsettled political conditions, when an outbreak of the populace was expected.

1888: Haiti

December 20. A display of force persuaded the Haitian government to give up an American steamer which had been seized on the charge of breach of blockade.

1888 - 1889: Samoa

November 14, 1888, to March 20, 1889. U.S. forces were landed to protect American citizens and the consulate during a native civil war.

1889: Hawaiian Islands

July 30 and 31. U.S. forces protected American interests at Honolulu during a revolution.

1890: Argentina

A naval party landed to protect U.S. consulate and legation in Buenos Aires.

1891: Haiti

U.S. forces sought to protect American lives and property on Navassa Island.

1891: Bering Strait

July 2 to October 5. Naval forces sought to stop seal poaching.

1891: Chile

August 28 to 30. U.S. forces protected the American consulate and the women and children who had taken refuge in it during a revolution in Valparaiso.

1893: Hawaii

January 16 to April 1. Marines were landed ostensibly to protect American lives and property, but many believed actually to promote a provisional government under Sanford B. Dole. This action was disavowed by the United States.

1894: Brazil

January. A display of naval force sought to protect American commerce and shipping at Rio de Janeiro during a Brazilian civil war.

1894: Nicaragua

July 6 to August 7. U.S. forces sought to protect American interests at Bluefields following a revolution.

1894 - 1895: China

Marines were stationed at Tientsin and penetrated to Peking for protection purposes during the Sino-Japanese War.

1894 - 1895: China

A naval vessel was beached and used as a fort at Newchwang for protection of American nationals.

1894 - 1896: Korea

July 24, 1894 to April 3, 1896. A guard of marines was sent to protect the American legation and American lives and interests at Seoul during and following the Sino-Japanese War.

1895: Colombia

March 8 to 9. U.S. forces protected American interests during an attack on the town of Bocas del Toro by a bandit chieftain.

1896: Nicaragua

May 2 to 4. U.S. forces protected American interests in Corinto during political unrest.

1898: Nicaragua

February 7 and 8. U.S. forces protected American lives and property at San Juan del Sur.

1898: Cuba (The Spanish-American War)

The Spanish-American War. On April 25, 1898, the United States declared war with Spain. The war followed a Cuban insurrection against Spanish rule and the sinking of the USS Maine in the harbor at Havana.

1898 - 1899: China

November 5, 1898, to March 15, 1899. U.S. forces provided a guard for the legation at Peking and the consulate at Tientsin during contest between the Dowager Empress and her son.

1899: Nicaragua

American and British naval forces were landed to protect national interests at San Juan del Norte, February 22 to March 5, and at Bluefields a few weeks later in connection with the insurrection of General Juan P. Reyes.

1899: Samoa

February-May 15. American and British naval forces were landed to protect national interests and to take part in a bloody contention over the succession to the throne.

1899 - 1901: Philippine Islands

U.S. forces protected American interests following the war with Spain and conquered the islands by defeating the Filipinos in their war for independence.

1900: China

May 24 to September 28. American troops participated in operations to protect foreign lives during the Boxer rising, particularly at Peking. For many years after this experience a permanent legation guard was maintained in Peking, and was strengthened at times as trouble threatened.

1901: Panama

Colombia (State of Panama). November 20 to December 4. U.S. forces protected American property on the Isthmus and kept transit lines open during serious revolutionary disturbances.

1902: Colombia

April 16 to 23. U.S. forces protected American lives and property at Bocas del Toro during a civil war.

1902: Panama

Colombia (State of Panama). September 17 to November 18. The United States placed armed guards on all trains crossing the Isthmus to keep the railroad line open, and stationed ships on both sides of Panama to prevent the landing of Colombian troops.

1903: Honduras

March 23 to 30 or 31. U.S. forces protected the American consulate and the steamship wharf at Puerto Cortez during a period of revolutionary activity.

1903: Dominican Republic

March 30 to April 21. A detachment of marines was landed to protect American interests in the city of Santo Domingo during a revolutionary outbreak.

1903: Syria

September 7 to 12. U.S. forces protected the American consulate in Beirut when a local Moslem uprising was feared.

1903 - 1904: Abyssinia

Twenty-five marines were sent to Abyssinia to protect the U.S. Consul General while he negotiated a treaty.

1903 - 1914: Panama

U.S. forces sought to protect American interests and lives during and following the revolution for independence from Colombia over construction of the Isthmian Canal. With brief intermissions, United States Marines were stationed on the Isthmus from November 4, 1903, to January 21, 1914, to guard American interests.

1904: Dominican Republic

January 2 to February 11. American and British naval forces established an area in which no fighting would be allowed and protected American interests in Puerto Plata and Sosua and Santo Domingo City during revolutionary fighting.

1904: Tangier

"We want either Perdicaris alive or Raisula dead." A squadron demonstrated to force release of a kidnapped American. Marines were landed to protect the consul general.

1904: Panama

November 17 to 24. U.S. forces protected American lives and property at Ancon at the time of a threatened insurrection.

1904 - 1905: Korea

January 5, 1904, to November 11, 1905. A guard of Marines was sent to protect the American legation in Seoul during the Russo-Japanese War.

1906 - 1909: Cuba

September 1906 to January 23, 1909. U.S. forces sought to restore order, protect foreigners, and establish a stable government after serious revolutionary activity.

1907: Honduras

March 18 to June 8. To protect American interests during a war between Honduras and Nicaragua, troops were stationed in Trujillo, Ceiba, Puerto Cortez, San Pedro, Laguna, and Choloma.

1910: Nicaragua

May 19 to September 4. U.S. forces protected American interests at Bluefields.

1911: Honduras

January 26. American naval detachments were landed to protect American lives and interests during a civil war in Honduras.

1911: China

As the nationalist revolution approached, in October an ensign and 10 men tried to enter Wuchang to rescue missionaries but retired on being warned away, and a small landing force guarded American private property and consulate at Hankow. Marines were deployed in November to guard the cable stations at Shanghai; landing forces were sent for protection in Nanking, Chinkiang, Taku, and elsewhere.

1912: Honduras

A small force landed to prevent seizure by the government of an American-owned railroad at Puerto Cortez. The forces were withdrawn after the United States disapproved the action.

1912: Panama

Troops, on request of both political parties, supervised elections outside the Canal Zone.

1912: Cuba

June 5 to August 5. U.S. forces protected American interests on the Province of Oriente, and in Havana.

1912: China

August 24 to 26, on Kentucky Island, and August 26 to 30 at Camp Nicholson. U.S. forces protected Americans and American interests during revolutionary activity.

1912: Turkey

November 18 to December 3. U.S. forces guarded the American legation at Constantinople during a Balkan War.

1912 - 1925: Nicaragua

August to November 1912. U.S. forces protected American interests during an attempted revolution. A small force, serving as a legation guard and seeking to promote peace and stability, remained until August 5, 1925.

1912 - 1941: China

The disorders which began with the overthrow of the dynasty during Kuomintang rebellion in 1912, which were redirected by the invasion of China by Japan, led to demonstrations and landing parties for the protection of U.S. interests in China continuously and at many points from 1912 on to 1941. The guard at Peking and along the route to the sea was maintained until 1941. In 1927, the United States had 5,670 troops ashore in China and 44 naval vessels in its waters. In 1933 the United States had 3,027 armed men ashore. The protective action was generally based on treaties with China concluded from 1858 to 1901.

1913: Mexico

September 5 to 7. A few marines landed at Ciaris Estero to aid in evacuating American citizens and others from the Yaqui Valley, made dangerous for foreigners by civil strife.

1914: Haiti

January 29 to February 9, February 20 to 21, October 19. Intermittently, U.S. naval forces protected American nationals in a time of rioting and revolution.

1914: Dominican Republic

June and July. During a revolutionary movement, United States naval forces by gunfire stopped the bombardment of Puerto Plata, and by threat of force maintained Santo Domingo City as a neutral zone.

1914 - 1917: Mexico

Undeclared Mexican-American hostilities followed the Dolphin affair and Villa's raids and included capture of Vera Cruz and later Pershing's expedition into northern Mexico.

1915 - 1934: Haiti

July 28, 1915, to August 15, 1934. U.S. forces maintained order during a period of chronic political instability.

1916: China

American forces landed to quell a riot taking place on American property in Nanking.

1916 - 1924: Dominican Republic

May 1916 to September 1924. American naval forces maintained order during a period of chronic and threatened insurrection.

1917: China

American troops were landed at Chungking to protect American lives during a political crisis.

1917 - 1918: Germany (World War I)

World War I. On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war with Germany and on December 7, 1917, with Austria-Hungary. Entrance of the United States into the war was precipitated by Germany's submarine warfare against neutral shipping.

Note: Although the US deployed troops to multiple countries during WWI, only Germany is listed in the report.

1917 - 1922: Cuba

U.S. forces protected American interests during an insurrection and subsequent unsettled conditions. Most of the United States armed forces left Cuba by August 1919, but two companies remained at Camaguey until February 1922.

1918 - 1919: Mexico

After withdrawal of the Pershing expedition, U.S. troops entered Mexico in pursuit of bandits at least three times in 1918 and six times in 1919. In August 1918 American and Mexican troops fought at Nogales.

1918 - 1920: Panama

U.S. forces were used for police duty according to treaty stipulations, at Chiriqui, during election disturbances and subsequent unrest.

1918 - 1920: Russia

Soviet Russia. Marines were landed at and near Vladivostok in June and July to protect the American consulate and other points in the fighting between the Bolshevik troops and the Czech Army, which had traversed Siberia from the western front. A joint proclamation of emergency government and neutrality was issued by the American, Japanese, British, French, and Czech commanders in July. In August 7,000 men were landed in Vladivostok and remained until January 1920, as part of an allied occupation force. In September 1918, 5,000 American troops joined the allied intervention force at Archangel and remained until June 1919. These operations were in response to the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and were partly supported by Czarist or Kerensky elements.

1919: Dalmatia

U.S. forces were landed at Trau at the request of Italian authorities to police order between the Italians and Serbs.

1919: Turkey

Marines from the USS Arizona were landed to guard the U.S. Consulate during the Greek occupation of Constantinople.

1919: Honduras

September 8 to 12. A landing force was sent ashore to maintain order in a neutral zone during an attempted revolution.

1920: China

March 14. A landing force was sent ashore for a few hours to protect lives during a disturbance at Kiukiang.

1920: Guatemala

April 9 to 27. U.S. forces protected the American legation and other American interests, such as the cable station, during a period of fighting between Unionists and the government of Guatemala.

1920 - 1922: Russia

Russia (Siberia). February 16, 1920, to November 19, 1922. A Marine guard was sent to protect the United States radio station and property on Russian Island, Bay of Vladivostok.

1921: Panama; Costa Rica

Panama-Costa Rica. American naval squadrons demonstrated in April on both sides of the Isthmus to prevent war between the two countries over a boundary dispute.

1922: Turkey

September and October. A landing force was sent ashore with consent of both Greek and Turkish authorities to protect American lives and property when the Turkish Nationalists entered Smyrna.

1922 - 1923: China

Between April 1922 and November 1923 marines were landed five times to protect Americans during periods of unrest.

1924: Honduras

February 28 to March 31, September 10 to 15. U.S. forces protected American lives and interests during election hostilities.

1924: China

September. Marines were landed to protect Americans and other foreigners in Shanghai during Chinese factional hostilities.

1925: China

January 15 to August 29. Fighting of Chinese factions accompanied by riots and demonstrations in Shanghai brought the landing of American forces to protect lives and property in the International Settlement.

1925: Honduras

Honduras. April 19 to 21. U.S. forces protected foreigners at La Ceiba during a political upheaval.

1925: Panama

October 12 to 23. Strikes and rent riots led to the landing of about 600 American troops to keep order and protect American interests.

1926 - 1933: Nicaragua

Nicaragua. May 7 to June 5, 1926; August 27, 1926, to January 3, 1933. The coup d'e_tat of General Chamorro aroused revolutionary activities leading to the landing of American marines to protect the interests of the United States. United States forces came and went intermittently until January 3, 1933.

1926: China

August and September. The Nationalist attack on Hankow brought the landing of American naval forces to protect American citizens. A small guard was maintained at the consulate general even after September 16, when the rest of the forces were withdrawn. Likewise, when Nationalist forces captured Kiukiang, naval forces were landed for the protection of foreigners November 4 to 6.

1927: China

February. Fighting at Shanghai caused American naval forces and marines to be increased. In March a naval guard was stationed at the American consulate at Nanking after Nationalist forces captured the city. American and British destroyers later used shell fire to protect Americans and other foreigners. Subsequently additional forces of marines and naval vessels were stationed in the vicinity of Shanghai and Tientsin.

1932: China

American forces were landed to protect American interests during the Japanese occupation of Shanghai.

1933: Cuba

During a revolution against President Gerardo Machado naval forces demonstrated but no landing was made.

1934: China

Marines landed at Foochow to protect the American Consulate.

1940: Newfoundland; Bermuda; St. Lucia; Bahamas; Jamaica; Antigua; Trinidad; Guiana

Newfoundland, Bermuda, St. Lucia, Bahamas, Jamaica, Antigua, Trinidad, and British Guiana. Troops were sent to guard air and naval bases obtained by negotiation with Great Britain. These were sometimes called lend-lease bases.

1941: Greenland

Greenland was taken under protection of the United States in April.

1941: Guiana

Netherlands (Dutch Guiana). In November the President ordered American troops to occupy Dutch Guiana, but by agreement with the Netherlands government in exile, Brazil cooperated to protect aluminum ore supply from the bauxite mines in Surinam.

1941: Iceland

Iceland was taken under the protection of the United States, with consent of its government, for strategic reasons.

1941: Germany

Sometime in the spring the President ordered the Navy to patrol ship lanes to Europe. By July U.S. warships were convoying and by September were attacking German submarines. In November, the Neutrality Act was partly repealed to protect U.S. military aid to Britain.

1941 - 1945: Japan; Germany; Italy; Bulgaria; Hungary; Romania (World War II)

On December 8, 1941, the United States declared war with Japan, on December 11 with Germany and Italy, and on June 5, 1942, with Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania. The United States declared war against Japan after the surprise bombing of Pearl Harbor, and against Germany and Italy after those nations, under the dictators Hitler and Mussolini, declared war against the United States. The United States declared war against Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania in response to the declarations of war by those nations against the United States.

1945: China

In October 50,000 U.S. Marines were sent to North China to assist Chinese Nationalist authorities in disarming and repatriating the Japanese in China and in controlling ports, railroads, and airfields. This was in addition to approximately 60,000 U.S. forces remaining in China at the end of World War II.

1946: Trieste

President Truman ordered the augmentation of U.S. troops along the zonal occupation line and the reinforcement of air forces in northern Italy after Yugoslav forces shot down an unarmed U.S. Army transport plane flying over Venezia Giulia. Earlier U.S. naval units had been dispatched to the scene.

1948: Palestine

A marine consular guard was sent to Jerusalem to protect the U.S. Consul General.

1948 - 1949: Berlin

After the Soviet Union established a land blockade of the U.S., British, and French sectors of Berlin on June 24, 1948, the United States and its allies airlifted supplies to Berlin until after the blockade was lifted in May 1949.

1948 - 1949: China

Marines were dispatched to Nanking to protect the American Embassy when the city fell to Communist troops, and to Shanghai to aid in the protection and evacuation of Americans.

1950 - 1953: Korea (Korean War)

The United States responded to North Korean invasion of South Korea by going to its assistance, pursuant to United Nations Security Council resolutions. U.S. forces deployed in Korea exceeded 300,000 during the last year of the conflict. Over 36,600 U.S. military were killed in action.

1950 - 1955: Taiwan

Formosa (Taiwan). In June 1950 at the beginning of the Korean War, President Truman ordered the U.S. Seventh Fleet to prevent Chinese Communist attacks upon Formosa and Chinese Nationalist operations against mainland China.

1954 - 1955: China

Naval units evacuated U.S. civilians and military personnel from the Tachen Islands.

1956: Egypt

A marine battalion evacuated U.S. nationals and other persons from Alexandria during the Suez crisis.

1958: Lebanon

Marines were landed in Lebanon at the invitation of its government to help protect against threatened insurrection supported from the outside. The President's action was supported by a congressional resolution passed in 1957 that authorized such actions in that area of the world.

1959 - 1960: The Caribbean

2d Marine Ground Task Force was deployed to protect U.S. nationals during the Cuban crisis.

1962: Thailand

The 3d Marine Expeditionary Unit landed on May 17, 1962, to support that country during the threat of Communist pressure from outside; by July 30 the 5,000 marines had been withdrawn.

1962: Cuba

On October 22, President Kennedy instituted "quarantine" on the shipment of offensive missiles to Cuba from the Soviet Union. He also warned the Soviet Union that the launching of any missile from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere would bring about U.S. nuclear retaliation on the Soviet Union. A negotiated settlement was achieved in a few days.

1962 - 1975: Laos

From October 1962 until 1975, the United States played an important role in military support of anti-Communist forces in Laos.

1964: Congo

The United States sent four transport planes to provide airlift for Congolese troops during a rebellion and to transport Belgian paratroopers to rescue foreigners.

1964 - 1973: Vietnam (Vietnam War)

U.S. military advisers had been in South Vietnam for a decade, and their numbers had been increased as the military position of the Saigon government became weaker. After citing what he termed were attacks on U.S. destroyers in the Tonkin Gulf, President Johnson asked in August 1964 for a resolution expressing U.S. determination to support freedom and protect peace in Southeast Asia. Congress responded with the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, expressing support for "all necessary measures" the President might take to repel armed attack against U.S. forces and prevent further aggression. Following this resolution, and following a Communist attack on a U.S. installation in central Vietnam, the United States escalated its participation in the war to a peak of 543,000 military personnel by April 1969.

1965: Dominican Republic

The United States intervened to protect lives and property during a Dominican revolt and sent more troops as fears grew that the revolutionary forces were coming increasingly under Communist control.

1967: Congo

The United States sent three military transport aircraft with crews to provide the Congo central government with logistical support during a revolt.

1970: Cambodia

U.S. troops were ordered into Cambodia to clean out Communist sanctuaries from which Viet Cong and North Vietnamese attacked U.S. and South Vietnamese forces in Vietnam. The object of this attack, which lasted from April 30 to June 30, was to ensure the continuing safe withdrawal of American forces from South Vietnam and to assist the program of Vietnamization.

1974: Cyprus

Evacuation from Cyprus. United States naval forces evacuated U.S. civilians during hostilities between Turkish and Greek Cypriot forces.

1975: Vietnam

Evacuation from Vietnam. On April 3, 1975, President Ford reported U.S. naval vessels, helicopters, and marines had been sent to assist in evacuation of refugees and U.S. nationals from Vietnam.

1975: Cambodia

Evacuation from Cambodia. On April 12, 1975, President Ford reported that he had ordered U.S. military forces to proceed with the planned evacuation of U.S. citizens from Cambodia.

1975: South Vietnam

On April 30, 1975, President Ford reported that a force of 70 evacuation helicopters and 865 marines had evacuated about 1,400 U.S. citizens and 5,500 third country nationals and South Vietnamese from landing zones near the U.S. Embassy in Saigon and the Tan Son Nhut Airfield.

1975: Cambodia

Mayaguez incident. On May 15, 1975, President Ford reported he had ordered military forces to retake the SS Mayaguez, a merchant vessel en route from Hong Kong to Thailand with a U.S. citizen crew which was seized by Cambodian naval patrol boats in international waters and forced to proceed to a nearby island.

1976: Lebanon

On July 22 and 23, 1974, helicopters from five U.S. naval vessels evacuated approximately 250 Americans and Europeans from Lebanon during fighting between Lebanese factions after an overland convoy evacuation had been blocked by hostilities.

1976: South Korea

Additional forces were sent to Korea after two American soldiers were killed by North Korean soldiers in the demilitarized zone between North and South Korea while cutting down a tree.

1978: Zaire

From May 19 through June 1978, the United States utilized military transport aircraft to provide logistical support to Belgian and French rescue operations in Zaire.

1980: Iran

On April 26, 1980, President Carter reported the use of six U.S. transport planes and eight helicopters in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue American hostages being held in Iran.

1981: El Salvador

After a guerilla offensive against the government of El Salvador, additional U.S. military advisers were sent to El Salvador, bringing the total to approximately 55, to assist in training government forces in counterinsurgency.

1981: Libya

On August 19, 1981, U.S. planes based on the carrier USS Nimitz shot down two Libyan jets over the Gulf of Sidra after one of the Libyan jets had fired a heat-seeking missile. The United States periodically held freedom of navigation exercises in the Gulf of Sidra, claimed by Libya as territorial waters but considered international waters by the United States.

1982: Sinai

On March 19, 1982, President Reagan reported the deployment of military personnel and equipment to participate in the Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai. Participation had been authorized by the Multinational Force and Observers Resolution, P.L. 97-132.

1982: Lebanon

On August 21, 1982, President Reagan reported the dispatch of 80 marines to serve in the multinational force to assist in the withdrawal of members of the Palestine Liberation force from Beirut. The Marines left September 20, 1982.

1982 - 1983: Lebanon

On September 29, 1982, President Reagan reported the deployment of 1200 marines to serve in a temporary multinational force to facilitate the restoration of Lebanese government sovereignty. On September 29, 1983, Congress passed the Multinational Force in Lebanon Resolution (P.L. 98-119) authorizing the continued participation for 18 months.

1983: Egypt

After a Libyan plane bombed a city in Sudan on March 18, 1983, and Sudan and Egypt appealed for assistance, the United States dispatched an AWACS electronic surveillance plane to Egypt.

1983 - 1989: Honduras

In July 1983 the United States undertook a series of exercises in Honduras that some believed might lead to conflict with Nicaragua. On March 25, 1986, unarmed U.S. military helicopters and crewmen ferried Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border to repel Nicaraguan troops.

1983: Chad

On August 8, 1983, President Reagan reported the deployment of two AWACS electronic surveillance planes and eight F-15 fighter planes and ground logistical support forces to assist Chad against Libyan and rebel forces.

1983: Grenada

On October 25, 1983, President Reagan reported a landing on Grenada by Marines and Army airborne troops to protect lives and assist in the restoration of law and order and at the request of five members of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States.

1984: Persian Gulf

On June 5, 1984, Saudi Arabian jet fighter planes, aided by intelligence from a U.S. AWACS electronic surveillance aircraft and fueled by a U.S. KC-10 tanker, shot down two Iranian fighter planes over an area of the Persian Gulf proclaimed as a protected zone for shipping.

1985: Italy

On October 10, 1985, U.S. Navy pilots intercepted an Egyptian airliner and forced it to land in Sicily. The airliner was carrying the hijackers of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro, who had killed an American citizen during the hijacking.

1986: Libya

On March 26, 1986, President Reagan reported to Congress that, on March 24 and 25, U.S. forces, while engaged in freedom of navigation exercises around the Gulf of Sidra, had been attacked by Libyan missiles and the United States had responded with missiles. On April 16, 1986, President Reagan reported that U.S. air and naval forces had conducted bombing strikes on terrorist facilities and military installations in Libya.

1986: Bolivia

U.S. Army personnel and aircraft assisted Bolivia in anti-drug operations.

1987 - 1988: Persian Gulf

After the Iran-Iraq War resulted in several military incidents in the Persian Gulf, the United States increased U.S. joint military forces operations in the Persian Gulf and adopted a policy of reflagging and escorting Kuwaiti oil tankers through the Gulf. President Reagan reported that U.S. Navy ships had been fired upon or struck mines or taken other military action on September 23, October 10, and October 20, 1987, and April 19, July 4, and July 14, 1988. The United States gradually reduced its forces after a cease-fire between Iran and Iraq on August 20, 1988.

1988: Panama

In mid-March and April 1988, during a period of instability in Panama and as pressure grew for Panamanian military leader General Manuel Noriega to resign, the United States sent 1,000 troops to Panama, to "further safeguard the canal, U.S. lives, property and interests in the area." The forces supplemented 10,000 U.S. military personnel already in Panama.

1989: Libya

On January 4, 1989, two U.S. Navy F-14 aircraft based on the USS John F. Kennedy shot down two Libyan jet fighters over the Mediterranean Sea about 70 miles north of Libya. The U.S. pilots said the Libyan planes had demonstrated hostile intentions.

1989: Panama

On May 11, 1989, in response to General Noriega's disregard of the results of the Panamanian election, President Bush ordered a brigade-sized force of approximately 1,900 troops to augment the estimated 11,000 U.S. forces already in the area.

1989: Colombia; Bolivia; Peru

Andean Initiative in War on Drugs. On September 15, 1989, President Bush announced that military and law enforcement assistance would be sent to help the Andean nations of Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru combat illicit drug producers and traffickers. By mid-September there were 50-100 U.S. military advisers in Colombia in connection with transport and training in the use of military equipment, plus seven Special Forces teams of 2-12 persons to train troops in the three countries.

1989: Philippines

On December 2, 1989, President Bush reported that on December 1 U.S. fighter planes from Clark Air Base in the Philippines had assisted the Aquino government to repel a coup attempt. In addition, 100 marines were sent from the U.S. Navy base at Subic Bay to protect the U.S. Embassy in Manila.

1989 - 1990: Panama

On December 21, 1989, President Bush reported that he had ordered U.S. military forces to Panama to protect the lives of American citizens and bring General Noriega to justice. By February 13, 1990, all the invasion forces had been withdrawn.

1990: Liberia

On August 6, 1990, President Bush reported that a reinforced rifle company had been sent to provide additional security to the U.S. Embassy in Monrovia, and that helicopter teams had evacuated U.S. citizens from Liberia.

1990: Saudi Arabia

On August 9, 1990, President Bush reported that he had ordered the forward deployment of substantial elements of the U.S. Armed Forces into the Persian Gulf region to help defend Saudi Arabia after the August 2 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. On November 16, 1990, he reported the continued buildup of the forces to ensure an adequate offensive military option.

1991: Iraq; Kuwait

On January 18, 1991, President Bush reported that he had directed U.S. Armed Forces to commence combat operations on January 16 against Iraqi forces and military targets in Iraq and Kuwait, in conjunction with a coalition of allies and U.N. Security Council resolutions. On January 12 Congress had passed the Authorization for Use of Military Force against Iraq Resolution (P.L. 102-1). Combat operations were suspended on February 28, 1991. On May 17, 1991, President Bush stated in a status report to Congress that the Iraqi repression of the Kurdish people had necessitated a limited introduction of U.S. forces into northern Iraq for emergency relief purposes.

1991: Zaire

On September 25-27, 1991, after widespread looting and rioting broke out in Kinshasa, U.S. Air Force C-141s transported 100 Belgian troops and equipment into Kinshasa. U.S. planes also carried 300 French troops into the Central African Republic and hauled back American citizens and third country nationals from locations outside Zaire.

1992: Sierra Leone

On May 3, 1992, U.S. military planes evacuated Americans from Sierra Leone, where military leaders had overthrown the government.

1992: Kuwait

On August 3, 1992, the United States began a series of military exercises in Kuwait, following Iraqi refusal to recognize a new border drawn up by the United Nations and refusal to cooperate with U.N. inspection teams.

1992: Iraq

On September 16, 1992, President Bush stated in a status report to Congress that he had ordered U.S. participation in the enforcement of a prohibition against Iraqi flights in a specified zone in southern Iraq, and aerial reconnaissance to monitor Iraqi compliance with the cease-fire resolution.

1992: Somalia

On December 10, 1992, President Bush reported that he had deployed U.S. Armed Forces to Somalia in response to a humanitarian crisis and a U.N. Security Council Resolution determining that the situation constituted a threat to international peace. This operation, called Operation Restore Hope, was part of a U.S.-led United Nations Unified Task Force (UNITAF) and came to an end on May 4, 1993. U.S. forces continued to participate in the successor United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II), which the U.N. Security Council authorized to assist Somalia in political reconciliation and restoration of peace.

1993: Iraq; Kuwait

On January 19, 1993, President Bush said in a status report that on December 27, 1992, U.S. aircraft had shot down an Iraqi aircraft in the prohibited zone; on January 13 aircraft from the United States and coalition partners had attacked missile bases in southern Iraq; and further military actions had occurred on January 17 and 18. Administration officials said the United States was deploying a battalion task force to Kuwait to underline the continuing U.S. commitment to Kuwaiti independence. On January 21, 1993, shortly after his inauguration, President Clinton said the United States would continue the Bush policy on Iraq, and U.S. aircraft fired at targets in Iraq after pilots sensed Iraqi radar or anti-aircraft fire directed at them.

1993: Bosnia

On February 28, 1993, the United States began an airdrop of relief supplies aimed at Muslims surrounded by Serbian forces in Bosnia. On April 13, 1993, President Clinton reported U.S. forces were participating in a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) air action to enforce a U.N. ban on all unauthorized military flights over Bosnia-Herzegovina

1993: Iraq

In a status report on Iraq of May 24, President Clinton said that on April 9 and April 18 U.S. planes had bombed or fired missiles at Iraqi anti-aircraft sites that had tracked U.S. aircraft.

1993: Somalia

On June 10, 1993, President Clinton reported that in response to attacks against U.N. forces in Somalia by a factional leader, the U.S. Quick Reaction Force in the area had participated in military action to quell the violence. On July 1 President Clinton reported further air and ground military operations on June 12 and June 17 aimed at neutralizing military capabilities that had impeded U.N. efforts to deliver humanitarian relief and promote national reconstruction, and additional instances occurred in the following months.

1993: Iraq

On June 28, 1993, President Clinton reported that on June 26 U.S. naval forces had launched missiles against the Iraqi Intelligence Service's headquarters in Baghdad in response to an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate former President Bush in Kuwait in April 1993.

1993: Iraq

In a status report of July 22, 1993, President Clinton said on June 19 a U.S. aircraft had fired a missile at an Iraqi anti-aircraft site displaying hostile intent. U.S. planes also bombed an Iraqi missile battery on August 19, 1993.

1993: Macedonia

On July 9, 1993, President Clinton reported the deployment of 350 U.S. soldiers to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to participate in the U.N. Protection Force to help maintain stability in the area of former Yugoslavia.

1993: Haiti

On October 20, 1993, President Clinton reported that U.S. ships had begun to enforce a U.N. embargo against Haiti.

1994: Bosnia

On February 17, 1994, President Clinton reported that the United States had expanded its participation in United Nations and NATO efforts to reach a peaceful solution to the conflict in former Yugoslavia and that 60 U.S. aircraft were available for participation in the authorized NATO missions.

1994: Bosnia

On March 1, 1994, President Clinton reported that on February 28 U.S. planes patrolling the "no-fly zone" in former Yugoslavia under NATO shot down four Serbian Galeb planes.

1994: Bosnia

On April 12, 1994, President Clinton reported that on April 10 and 11, U.S. warplanes under NATO command had fired against Bosnian Serb forces shelling the "safe" city of Gorazde.

1994: Rwanda

On April 12, 1994, President Clinton reported that combat-equipped U.S. military forces had been deployed to Burundi to conduct possible non-combatant evacuation operations of U.S. citizens and other third-country nationals from Rwanda, where widespread fighting had broken out. By September 30, 1994, all U.S. troops had departed from Rwanda and surrounding nations. In the Defense Appropriations Act for FY1995 (P.L. 103-335, signed September 30, 1994), Congress barred use of funds for U.S. military participation in or around Rwanda after October 7, 1994, except for any action necessary to protect U.S. citizens.

1994: Macedonia

On April 19, 1994, President Clinton reported that the U.S. contingent in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia had been augmented by a reinforced company of 200 personnel.

1994: Haiti

On April 20, 1994, President Clinton reported that U.S. naval forces had continued enforcement of the U.N. embargo in the waters around Haiti and that 712 vessels had been boarded since October 20, 1993.

1994: Bosnia

On August 22, 1994, President Clinton reported the use on August 5 of U.S. aircraft under NATO to attack Bosnian Serb heavy weapons in the Sarajevo heavy weapons exclusion zone upon request of the U.N. Protection Forces.

1994: Haiti

On September 21, 1994, President Clinton reported the deployment of 1,500 troops to Haiti to restore democracy in Haiti. The troop level was subsequently increased to 20,000.

1994: Bosnia

On November 22, 1994, President Clinton reported the use of U.S. combat aircraft on November 21, 1994, under NATO, to attack bases used by Serbs to attack the town of Bihac in Bosnia.

1994: Macedonia

On December 22, 1994, President Clinton reported that the U.S. Army contingent in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia continued its peacekeeping mission and that the current contingent would soon be replaced by about 500 soldiers from the 3rd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment, and 1st Armored Division from Kirchgons, Germany.

1995: Somalia

Somalia. On March 1, 1995, President Clinton reported that on February 27, 1995, 1,800 combat- equipped U.S. Armed Forces personnel began deployment into Mogadishu, Somalia, to assist in the withdrawal of U.N. forces assigned there to the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II). This mission was completed on March 3, 1995.

1995: Haiti

On March 21, 1995, President Clinton reported that U.S. military forces in Haiti as part of a U.N. Multinational Force had been reduced to just under 5,300 personnel. He noted that as of March 31, 1995, approximately 2,500 U.S. personnel would remain in Haiti as part of the U.N. Mission in Haiti (UNMIH).

1995: Bosnia

On May 24, 1995, President Clinton reported that U.S. combat-equipped fighter aircraft and other aircraft continued to contribute to NATO's enforcement of the no-fly zone in airspace over Bosnia-Herzegovina. U.S. aircraft, he noted, were also available for close air support of U.N. forces in Croatia. Roughly 500 U.S. soldiers continued to be deployed in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the U.N. Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP). U.S. forces continued to support U.N. refugee and embargo operations in this region.

1995: Bosnia

On September 1, 1995, President Clinton reported that "U.S. combat and support aircraft" had been used beginning on August 29, 1995, in a series of NATO air strikes against Bosnian Serb Army (BSA) forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina that were threatening the U.N.-declared safe areas of Sarajevo, Tuzla, and Gorazde. He noted that during the first day of operations, "some 300 sorties were flown against 23 targets in the vicinity of Sarajevo, Tuzla, Gorazde and Mostar."

1995: Haiti

On September 21, 1995, President Clinton reported that currently the United States had 2,400 military personnel in Haiti as participants in UNMIH. In addition, 260 U.S. military personnel were assigned to the U.S. Support Group Haiti.

1995: Bosnia

On December 6, 1995, President Clinton reported to Congress that he had "ordered the deployment of approximately 1,500 U.S. military personnel" to Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia as part of a NATO "enabling force" to lay the groundwork for the prompt and safe deployment of the NATO-led Implementation Force (IFOR), which would be used to implement the Bosnian peace agreement after its signing. The President also noted that he had authorized deployment of roughly 3,000 other U.S. military personnel to Hungary, Italy, and Croatia to establish infrastructure for the enabling force and the IFOR.

1995: Bosnia

On December 21, 1995, President Clinton reported to Congress that he had ordered the deployment of approximately 20,000 U.S. military personnel to participate in IFOR in the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and approximately 5,000 U.S. military personnel would be deployed in other former Yugoslav states, primarily in Croatia. In addition, about 7,000 U.S. support forces would be deployed to Hungary, Italy, and Croatia and other regional states in support of IFOR's mission.

1996: Haiti

On March 21, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress that beginning in January 1996 there had been a "phased reduction" in the number of United States personnel assigned to UNMIH. As of March 21, 309 U.S. personnel remained a part of UNMIH. These U.S. forces were "equipped for combat."

1996: Liberia

On April 11, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress that on April 9, 1996, due to the "deterioration of the security situation and the resulting threat to American citizens" in Liberia he had ordered U.S. military forces to evacuate from that country "private U.S. citizens and certain third-country nationals who had taken refuge in the U.S. Embassy compound."

1996: Liberia

On May 20, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress the continued deployment of U.S. military forces in Liberia to evacuate both American citizens and other foreign personnel, and to respond to various isolated "attacks on the American Embassy complex" in Liberia. The President noted that the deployment of U.S. forces would continue until there was no longer any need for enhanced security at the Embassy and a requirement to maintain an evacuation capability in the country.

1996: Central African Republic

On May 23, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress the deployment of U.S. military personnel to Bangui, Central African Republic, to conduct the evacuation from that country of "private U.S. citizens and certain U.S. Government employees," and to provide "enhanced security for the American Embassy in Bangui."

1996: Bosnia; Hungary; Italy; Croatia; Macedonia

On June 21, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress that United States forces totaling about 17,000 remain deployed in Bosnia "under NATO operational command and control" as part of the NATO Implementation Force (IFOR). In addition, about 5,500 U.S. military personnel were deployed in Hungary, Italy, and Croatia, and other regional states to provide "logistical and other support to IFOR." The President noted that it was the intention that IFOR would complete the withdrawal of all troops in the weeks after December 20, 1996, on a schedule "set by NATO commanders consistent with the safety of troops and the logistical requirements for an orderly withdrawal." He also noted that a U.S. Army contingent (of about 500 U.S. soldiers) remained in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).

1996: Rwanda; Zaire

On December 2, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress that to support the humanitarian efforts of the United Nations regarding refugees in Rwanda and the Great Lakes Region of Eastern Zaire, he had authorized the use of U.S. personnel and aircraft, including AC-130U planes to help in surveying the region in support of humanitarian operations, although fighting still was occurring in the area, and U.S. aircraft had been subject to fire when on flight duty.

1996: Bosnia

On December 20, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress that he had authorized U.S. participation in an IFOR follow-on force in Bosnia, known as SFOR (Stabilization Force), under NATO command. The President said the U.S. forces contribution to SFOR was to be "about 8,500" personnel whose primary mission is to deter or prevent a resumption of hostilities or new threats to peace in Bosnia. SFOR's duration in Bosnia was expected to be 18 months, with progressive reductions and eventual withdrawal.

1997: Albania

On March 15, 1997, President Clinton reported to Congress that on March 13, 1997, he had utilized U.S. military forces to evacuate certain U.S. government employees and private U.S. citizens from Tirana, Albania, and to enhance security for the U.S. Embassy in that city.

1997: Congo; Gabon

On March 27, 1997, President Clinton reported to Congress that, on March 25, 1997, a standby evacuation force of U.S. military personnel had been deployed to Congo and Gabon to provide enhanced security for American private citizens, government employees, and selected third country nationals in Zaire, and to be available for any necessary evacuation operation.

1997: Sierra Leone

On May 30, 1997, President Clinton reported to Congress that on May 29 and May 30, 1997, U.S. military personnel were deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone, to prepare for and undertake the evacuation of certain U.S. government employees and private U.S. citizens.

1997: Bosnia; Hungary; Croatia; Italy; Macedonia

On June 20, 1997, President Clinton reported to Congress that U.S. Armed Forces continued to support peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and other states in the region in support of the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). He reported that currently most U.S. military personnel involved in SFOR were in Bosnia, near Tuzla, and about 2,800 U.S. troops were deployed in Hungary, Croatia, Italy, and other regional states to provide logistics and other support to SFOR. A U.S. Army contingent of about 500 also remained in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the UNPREDEP.

1997: Cambodia

On July 11, 1997, President Clinton reported to Congress that in an effort to ensure the security of American citizens in Cambodia during a period of domestic conflict there, he had deployed a Task Force of about 550 U.S. military personnel to Utapao Air Base in Thailand. These personnel were to be available for possible emergency evacuation operations in Cambodia as deemed necessary.

1997: Bosnia

On December 19, 1997, President Clinton reported to Congress that he intended "in principle" to have the United States participate in a security presence in Bosnia when the NATO SFOR contingent withdrew in the summer of 1998.

1998: Guinea-Bissau

On June 12, 1998, President Clinton reported to Congress that, on June 10, 1998, in response to an army mutiny in Guinea-Bissau endangering the U.S. Embassy, U.S. government employees, and U.S. citizens in that country, he had deployed a standby evacuation force of U.S. military personnel to Dakar, Senegal, to remove such individuals, as well as selected third country nationals, from the city of Bissau. The deployment continued until the necessary evacuations were completed.

1998: Bosnia

On June 19, 1998, President Clinton reported to Congress regarding activities in the last six months of combat-equipped U.S. forces in support of NATO's SFOR in Bosnia and surrounding areas of former Yugoslavia.

1998: Kenya; Tanzania

On August 10, 1998, President Clinton reported to Congress that he had deployed, on August 7, 1998, Joint Task Force of U.S. military personnel to Nairobi, Kenya, to coordinate the medical and disaster assistance related to the bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. He also reported that teams of 50-100 security personnel had arrived in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to enhance the security of the U.S. Embassies and citizens there.

1998: Albania

On August 18, 1998, President Clinton reported to Congress that he had, on August 16, 1998, deployed 200 U.S. Marines and 10 Navy SEALS to the U.S. Embassy compound in Tirana, Albania, to enhance security against reported threats against U.S. personnel.

1998: Afghanistan; Sudan

On August 21, 1998, by letter, President Clinton reported to Congress that he had authorized airstrikes on August 20 against camps and installations in Afghanistan and Sudan used by the Osama bin Laden terrorist organization. The President did so based on what he viewed as convincing information that the bin Laden organization was responsible for the bombings, on August 7, 1998, of the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.

1998: Liberia

On September 29, 1998, President Clinton reported to Congress that on September 27, 1998, he had, due to political instability and civil disorder in Liberia, deployed a stand-by response and evacuation force of 30 U.S. military personnel to augment the security force at the U.S. Embassy in Monrovia, and to provide for a rapid evacuation capability, as needed, to remove U.S. citizens and government personnel from the country.

1998: Iraq

During the period from December 16-23, 1998, the United States, together with the United Kingdom, conducted a bombing campaign, termed Operation Desert Fox, against Iraqi industrial facilities deemed capable of producing weapons of mass destruction, and against other Iraqi military and security targets.

1998 - 1999: Iraq

Beginning in late December 1998, and continuing during 1999, the United States, together with forces of the coalition enforcing the "no-fly" zones over Iraq, conducted military operations against the Iraqi air defense system on numerous occasions in response to actual or potential threats against aircraft enforcing the "no-fly" zones in northern and southern Iraq.

1999: Bosnia; Hungary; Croatia; Italy; Macedonia

On January 19, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress that he was continuing to authorize the use of combat-equipped U.S. Armed Forces in Bosnia and other states in the region as participants in and supporters of the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). He noted that the U.S. SFOR military personnel totaled about 6,900, with about 2,300 U.S. military personnel deployed to Hungary, Croatia, Italy, and other regional states. Also, some 350 U.S. military personnel remain deployed in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) as part of UNPREDEP.

1999: Kenya

On February 25, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress that he was continuing to deploy U.S. military personnel in that country to assist in providing security for the U.S. Embassy and American citizens in Nairobi, pending completion of renovations of the American Embassy facility in Nairobi, subject of a terrorist bombing in August 1998.

1999: Yugoslavia

On March 26, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress that, on March 24, 1999, U.S. military forces, at his direction, and in coalition with NATO allies, had commenced air strikes against Yugoslavia in response to the Yugoslav government's campaign of violence and repression against the ethnic Albanian population in Kosovo.

1999: Yugoslavia; Albania; Macedonia

On April 7, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress that he had ordered additional U.S. military forces to Albania, including rotary wing aircraft, artillery, and tactical missiles systems to enhance NATO's ability to conduct effective air operations in Yugoslavia. About 2,500 soldiers and aviators are to be deployed as part of this task force. The President also reported the deployment of U.S. military forces to Albania and Macedonia to support humanitarian disaster relief operations for Kosovar refugees.

1999: Yugoslavia; Albania

On May 25, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress, "consistent with the war Powers Resolution," that he had directed "deployment of additional aircraft and forces to support NATO's ongoing efforts [against Yugoslavia], including several thousand additional U.S. Armed Forces personnel to Albania in support of the deep strike force located there." He also directed that additional U.S. forces be deployed to the region to assist in "humanitarian operations."

1999: Yugoslavia; Kosovo

On June 12, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that he had directed the deployment of about "7,000 U.S. military personnel as the U.S. contribution to the approximately 50,000-member, NATO-led security force (KFOR)" currently being assembled in Kosovo. He also noted that about "1,500 U.S. military personnel, under separate U.S. command and control, will deploy to other countries in the region, as our national support element, in support of KFOR."

1999: Bosnia; Hungary; Croatia; Italy

On July 19, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that about 6,200 U.S. military personnel were continuing to participate in the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia, and that another 2,200 personnel were supporting SFOR operations from Hungary, Croatia, and Italy. He also noted that U.S. military personnel remain in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to support the international security presence in Kosovo (KFOR).

1999: East Timor

On October 8, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution" that he had directed the deployment of a limited number of U.S. military forces to East Timor to support the U.N. multinational force (INTERFET) aimed at restoring peace to East Timor. U.S. support has been limited initially to "communications, logistics, planning assistance and transportation." The President further noted that he had authorized deployment of the amphibious ship USS Belleau Wood, together with its helicopters and her complement of personnel from the 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit (Special Operations Capable) (MEU SOC), to the East Timor region, to provide helicopter airlift and search and rescue support to the multinational operation. U.S. participation was anticipated to continue until the transition to a U.N. peacekeeping operation was complete.

1999: Yugoslavia; Kosovo; Greece; Macedonia; Albania

On December 15, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution" that U.S. combat-equipped military personnel continued to serve as part of the NATO-led security force in Kosovo (KFOR). He noted that the American contribution to KFOR in Kosovo was "approximately 8,500 U.S. military personnel." U.S. forces were deployed in a sector around Urosevac in the eastern portion of Kosovo. For U.S. KFOR forces, "maintaining public security is a key task." Other U.S. military personnel are deployed to other countries in the region to serve in administrative and logistics support roles for U.S. forces in KFOR. Of these forces, about 1,500 U.S. military personnel are in Macedonia and Greece, and occasionally in Albania.

1999 - 2000: Iraq

At various times during 1999, and continuing throughout 2000, the United States, together with forces of the coalition enforcing the "no-fly" zones over Iraq, conducted military operations against the Iraqi air defense system on numerous occasions in response to actual or potential threats against aircraft enforcing the "no-fly" zones in northern and southern Iraq.

2000: Bosnia

On January 25, 2000, President Clinton reported to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution" that the United States continued to provide combat-equipped U.S. Armed Forces to Bosnia-Herzegovina and other states in the region as part of the NATO led Stabilization Force (SFOR). The President noted that the U.S. force contribution was being reduced from "approximately 6,200 to 4,600 personnel," with the U.S. forces assigned to Multinational Division, North, around the city of Tuzla. He added that approximately 1,500 U.S. military personnel were deployed to Hungary, Croatia, and Italy to provide "logistical and other support to SFOR" and U.S. forces continue to support SFOR in "efforts to apprehend persons indicted for war crimes."

2000: East Timor

On February 25, 2000, President Clinton reported to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution" that he had authorized the participation of a small number of U.S. military personnel in support of the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET), which has a mandate to maintain law and order throughout East Timor, and to facilitate establishment of an effective administration there, delivery of humanitarian assistance, and support the building of self-government. The President reported that the U.S. contingent was small: three military observers, and one judge advocate. To facilitate and coordinate U.S. military activities in East Timor, the President also authorized the deployment of a support group (USGET), consisting of 30 U.S. personnel. U.S. personnel would be temporarily deployed to East Timor, on a rotational basis, and through periodic ship visits, during which U.S. forces would conduct "humanitarian and assistance activities throughout East Timor." Rotational activities should continue through the summer of 2000.

2000: Sierra Leone

On May 12, 2000, President Clinton, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," reported to Congress that he had ordered a U.S. Navy patrol craft to deploy to Sierra Leone to be ready to support evacuation operations from that country if needed. He also authorized a U.S. C-17 aircraft to deliver "ammunition, and other supplies and equipment" to Sierra Leone in support of United Nations peacekeeping operations there.

2000: Yugoslavia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Albania; Greece

On June 16, 2000, President Clinton reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that the United States was continuing to provide military personnel to the NATO-led KFOR security force in Kosovo. U.S. forces were numbered at 7,500, but were scheduled to be reduced to 6,000 when ongoing troop rotations were completed. U.S. forces in Kosovo are assigned to a sector centered near Gnjilane in eastern Kosovo. Other U.S. military personnel are deployed to other countries serving in administrative and logistics support roles, with approximately 1,000 U.S. personnel in Macedonia, Albania, and Greece.

2000: Bosnia

On July 25, 2000, President Clinton reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that combat-equipped U.S. military personnel continued to participate in the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia-Herzegovina, being deployed to Bosnia and other states in the region in support of peacekeeping efforts in former Yugoslavia. U.S. military personnel levels have been reduced from 6,200 to 4,600. Apart from the forces in Bosnia, approximately 1,000 U.S. personnel continue to be deployed in support roles in Hungary, Croatia, and Italy.

2000: East Timor

On August 25, 2000, President Clinton reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that the United States was currently contributing three military observers to the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) that is charged by the U.N. with restoring and maintaining peace and security there. He also noted that the United States was maintaining a military presence in East Timor separate from UNTAET, comprised of about 30 U.S. personnel who facilitate and coordinate U.S. military activities in East Timor and rotational operations of U.S. forces there. U.S. forces currently conduct humanitarian and civic assistance activities for East Timor's citizens. U.S. rotational presence operations in East Timor are presently expected, the President said, to continue through December 2000.

2000: Yemen

On October 14, 2000, President Clinton reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that on October 12, 2000, in the wake of an attack on the USS Cole in the port of Aden, Yemen, he had authorized deployment of about 45 military personnel from U.S. Naval Forces Central Command to Aden to provide "medical, security, and disaster response assistance." The President further reported that on October 13, 2000, about 50 U.S. military security personnel arrived in Aden, and that additional "security elements" may be deployed to the area, to enhance the ability of the U.S. to ensure the security of the USS Cole and the personnel responding to the incident. In addition, two U.S. Navy surface combatant vessels are operating in or near Yemeni territorial waters to provide communications and other support, as required.

2000: Yugoslavia; Kosovo

On December 18, 2000, President Clinton reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that the United States was continuing to provide approximately 5,600 U.S. military personnel in support of peacekeeping efforts in Kosovo as part of KFOR. An additional 500 U.S. military personnel are deployed as the National Support Element in Macedonia, with an occasional presence in Albania and Greece. U.S. forces are assigned to a sector around Gnjilane in the eastern portion of Kosovo. The President noted that the mission for these U.S. military forces is maintaining a safe and secure environment through conducting "security patrols in urban areas and in the countryside throughout their sector."

2001: East Timor

On March 2, 2001, President George W. Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that U.S. Armed Forces were continuing to support the United Nations peacekeeping effort in East Timor aimed at providing security and maintaining law and order in East Timor, coordinating delivery of humanitarian assistance, and helping establish the basis for self- government in East Timor. The United States currently has three military observers attached to UNTAET. The United States also has a separate military presence, the U.S. Support Group East Timor (USGET), of approximately 12 U.S. personnel, including a security detachment, which "facilitates and coordinates" U.S. military activities in East Timor.

2001: Yugoslavia; Kosovo

On May 18, 2001, President George W. Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that the United States was continuing to provide approximately 6,000 U.S. military personnel in support of peacekeeping efforts in Kosovo as part of KFOR. An additional 500 U.S. military personnel are deployed as the National Support Element in Macedonia, with an occasional presence in Greece and Albania. U.S. forces in Kosovo are assigned to a sector around Gnjilane in the eastern portion. President Bush noted that the mission for these U.S. military forces is maintaining a safe and secure environment through conducting security patrols in urban areas and in the countryside through their sector.

2001: Bosnia; Hungary; Croatia; Italy

On July 25, 2001, President George W. Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that about 3,800 combat-equipped U.S. Armed Forces continued to be deployed in Bosnia-Herzegovina and other regional states as part of SFOR. Most were based at Tuzla in Bosnia. About 500 others were based in Hungary, Croatia, and Italy, providing logistical and other support.

2001: Iraq

At various times throughout 2001, the United States, together with forces of the coalition enforcing the "no-fly" zones over Iraq, conducted military operations against the Iraqi air defense system on numerous occasions in response to actual or potential threats against aircraft enforcing the "no-fly" zones in northern and southern Iraq.

2001: East Timor

On August 31, 2001, President George W. Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that U.S. Armed Forces were continuing to support the United Nations peacekeeping effort in East Timor aimed at providing security and maintaining law and order in East Timor, coordinating delivery of humanitarian assistance, and helping establish the basis for self- government in East Timor. The United States currently has three military observers attached to UNTAET. The United States also has a separate military presence, USGET, of approximately 20 U.S. personnel, including a security detachment, which "facilitates and coordinates" U.S. military activities in East Timor, as well as a rotational presence of U.S. forces through temporary deployments to East Timor. The President stated that U.S. forces would continue a presence through December 2001, while options for a U.S. presence in 2002 are being reviewed, with the President's objective being redeployment of USGET personnel, as circumstances permit.

2001: Afghanistan

On October 9, 2001, President George W. Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution" and "Senate Joint Resolution 23," that on October 7, 2001, U.S. Armed Forces "began combat action in Afghanistan against Al Qaida terrorists and their Taliban supporters." The President stated that he had directed this military action in response to the September 11, 2001, attacks on U.S. "territory, our citizens, and our way of life, and to the continuing threat of terrorist acts against the United States and our friends and allies." This military action was "part of our campaign against terrorism" and was "designed to disrupt the use of Afghanistan as a terrorist base of operations."

2001: Yugoslavia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Albania; Greece

On November 19, 2001, President George W. Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that the United States was continuing to provide approximately 5,500 U.S. military personnel in support of peacekeeping efforts in Kosovo as part of KFOR. An additional 500 U.S. military personnel are deployed as the National Support Element in Macedonia, with an occasional presence in Greece and Albania. U.S. forces in Kosovo are assigned to a sector around Gnjilane in the eastern portion. President Bush noted that the mission for these U.S. military forces is maintaining a safe and secure environment through conducting security patrols in urban areas and in the countryside through their sector.

2002: Bosnia; Hungary; Croatia; Italy

On January 21, 2002, President George W. Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that about 3,100 combat-equipped U.S. Armed Forces continued to be deployed in Bosnia-Herzegovina and other regional states as part of the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). Most American forces were based at Tuzla in Bosnia. About 500 others were based in Hungary, Croatia, and Italy, providing logistical and other support.

2002: East Timor

On February 28, 2002, President George W. Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that U.S. Armed Forces were continuing to support the United Nations peacekeeping effort in East Timor aimed at providing security and maintaining law and order in East Timor, coordinating delivery of humanitarian assistance, and helping establish the basis for self- government in East Timor. The United States currently has three military observers attached to UNTAET.

The United States also has a separate military presence, USGET, composed of approximately 10 U.S. personnel, including a security detachment, which "facilitates and coordinates" U.S. military activities in East Timor, as well as a rotational presence of U.S. forces through temporary deployments to East Timor. The President stated that U.S. forces would continue a presence through 2002. The President noted his objective was to gradually reduce the "rotational presence operations," and to redeploy USGET personnel, as circumstances permitted.

2002: Afghanistan; Philippines

On March 20, 2002, President George W. Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," on U.S. efforts in the "global war on Terrorism." He noted that the "heart of the al-Qaeda training capability" had been "seriously degraded," and that the remainder of the Taliban and the al-Qaeda fighters were being "actively pursued and engaged by the U.S., coalition and Afghan forces."

The United States was also conducting "maritime interception operations ... to locate and detain suspected al-Qaeda or Taliban leadership fleeing Afghanistan by sea."

At the Philippine government's invitation, the President had ordered deployed "combat- equipped and combat support forces to train with, advise, and assist" the Philippines' Armed Forces in enhancing their "existing counterterrorist capabilities." The strength of U.S. military forces working with the Philippines was projected to be 600 personnel.

The President noted that he was "assessing options" for assisting other nations, including Georgia and Yemen, in enhancing their "counterterrorism capabilities, including training and equipping their armed forces." He stated that U.S. combat-equipped and combat support forces would be necessary for these efforts, if undertaken.

2002: Yugoslavia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Albania; Greece

On May 17, 2002, President George W. Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that the U.S. military was continuing to support peacekeeping efforts of KFOR. He noted that the current U.S. contribution was about 5,100 military personnel, and an additional 468 personnel in Macedonia, with an occasional presence in Albania and Greece.

2002: Bosnia

On July 22, 2002, President George W. Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that the U.S. military was continuing to support peacekeeping efforts of SFOR in Bosnia-Herzegovina and other regional states. He noted that the current U.S. contribution was "approximately 2,400 personnel." Most U.S. forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina are assigned to the Multinational Division, North, headquartered in Tuzla. An additional 60 U.S. military personnel are deployed to Hungary and Croatia to provide logistical and other support.

2002: Philippines; Georgia; Yemen

On September 20, 2002, President Bush reported to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that U.S. "combat-equipped and combat support forces" had been deployed to the Philippines since January 2002 to train with, assist, and advise the Philippines' Armed Forces in enhancing their "counterterrorist capabilities." He added that U.S. forces were conducting maritime interception operations in the Central and European Command areas to combat movement, arming, or financing of "international terrorists. He also noted that U.S. combat personnel had been deployed to Georgia and Yemen to help enhance the "counterterrorist capabilities" of their armed forces.

2002: Cote d'Ivoire

On September 26, 2002, President Bush reported to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that in response to a rebellion in Cote d'Ivoire he had on September 25, 2002, sent U.S. military personnel into Cote d'Ivoire to assist in the evacuation of American citizens and third country nationals from the city of Bouake; and otherwise assist in other evacuations as necessary.

2002: Yugoslavia; Kosovo; Albania; Greece

On November 15, 2002, the President reported to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution" that the U.S. was continuing to deploy combat equipped military personnel as part of KFOR. Currently there are approximately 4,350 U.S. military personnel in Kosovo, with an additional 266 military personnel in Macedonia. The United States also has an occasional presence in Albania and Greece, associated with the KFOR mission.

2003: Bosnia

On January 21, 2003, President George W. Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that about 1,800 U.S. Armed Forces personnel continued to be deployed in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and other regional states as part of SFOR. Most were based at Tuzla in Bosnia. About 80 others were based in Hungary and Croatia, providing logistical and other support.

2003: Afghanistan; Pakistan; Georgia; Yemen

On March 20, 2003, President Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," as well as P.L. 107-40, and "pursuant to" his authority as Commander-in-Chief," that he had continued a number of U.S. military operations globally in the war against terrorism. These military operations included ongoing U.S. actions against al-Qaeda fighters in Afghanistan; collaborative anti-terror operations with forces of Pakistan in the Pakistan/Afghanistan border area; "maritime interception operations on the high seas" in areas of responsibility of the Central and European Commands to prevent terrorist movement and other activities; and military support for the armed forces of Georgia and Yemen in counter-terrorism operations.

2003: Iraq (Iraq War)

On March 21, 2003, President Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," as well as P.L. 102-1 and P.L. 107-243, and "pursuant to" his authority as Commander-in-Chief, that he had "directed U.S. Armed Forces, operating with other coalition forces, to commence operations on March 19, 2003, against Iraq." He further stated that it was not possible to know at present the duration of active combat operations or the scope necessary to accomplish the goals of the operation "to disarm Iraq in pursuit of peace, stability, and security both in the Gulf region and in the United States."

2003: Yugoslavia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Albania; Greece

On May 14, 2003, President Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that combat-equipped U.S. military personnel continued to be deployed as part of KFOR. He noted that about 2,250 U.S. military personnel were deployed in Kosovo, and additional military personnel operated, on occasion, from Macedonia, Albania, and Greece in support of KFOR operations.

2003: Liberia; Mauritania; Senegal

On June 9, 2003, President Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that on June 8 he had sent about 35 combat-equipped U.S. military personnel into Monrovia, Liberia, to augment U.S. Embassy security forces, to aid in the possible evacuation of U.S. citizens if necessary. The President also noted that he had sent about 34 combat-equipped U.S. military personnel to help secure the U.S. Embassy in Nouakchott, Mauritania, and to assist in evacuation of American citizens if required. They were expected to arrive at the U.S. Embassy by June 10, 2003. Back-up and support personnel were sent to Dakar, Senegal, to aid in any necessary evacuation from either Liberia or Mauritania.

2003: Bosnia

On July 22, 2003, President Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that the United States continued to provide about 1,800 combat-equipped military personnel in Bosnia-Herzegovina in support of NATO's SFOR and its peacekeeping efforts in this country.

2003: Liberia

On August 13, 2003, President Bush reported to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that in response to conditions in Liberia, on August 11, 2003, he had authorized about 4,350 U.S. combat-equipped military personnel to enter Liberian territorial waters in support of U.N. and West African States efforts to restore order and provide humanitarian assistance in Liberia.

2003: Philippines; Georgia; Djibouti

On September 19, 2003, President Bush reported to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that U.S. "combat-equipped and combat support forces" continue to be deployed at a number of locations around the world as part of U.S. anti-terrorism efforts. American forces support anti-terrorism efforts in the Philippines, and maritime interception operations continue on the high seas in the Central, European, and Pacific Command areas of responsibility, to "prevent the movement, arming, or financing of international terrorists." He also noted that "U.S. combat equipped and support forces" had been deployed to Georgia and Djibouti to help in enhancing their "counterterrorist capabilities."

2003: Yugoslavia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Albania; Greece

On November 14, 2003, the President reported to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution" that the United States was continuing to deploy combat equipped military personnel as part of the NATO-led international security force in Kosovo (KFOR). Currently there are approximately 2,100 U.S. military personnel in Kosovo, with additional American military personnel operating out of Macedonia, Albania and Greece, in support of KFOR operations.

2004: Bosnia

On January 22, 2004, the President reported to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution" that the United States was continuing to deploy combat equipped military personnel Bosnia and Herzegovina in support of NATO's SFOR and its peacekeeping efforts in this country. About 1,800 U.S. personnel are participating.

2004: Haiti

On February 25, 2004, the President reported to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution" that, on February 23, he had sent a combat-equipped "security force" of about "55 U.S. military personnel from the U.S. Joint Forces Command" to Port-au-Prince, Haiti, to augment the U.S. Embassy security forces there and to protect American citizens and property in light of the instability created by the armed rebellion in Haiti.

2004: Haiti

On March 2, 2004, the President reported to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution" that on February 29 he had sent about "200 additional U.S. combat-equipped, military personnel from the U.S. Joint Forces Command" to Port-au-Prince, Haiti for a variety of purposes, including preparing the way for a U.N. Multinational Interim Force, and otherwise supporting U.N. Security Council Resolution 1529 (2004).

2004: Bosnia; Haiti; Afghanistan; Kosovo; Georgia; Djibouti; Kenya; Ethiopia; Yemen; Eritrea

On March 20, 2004, the President reported to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a consolidated report giving details of multiple on-going United States military deployments and operations "in support of the global war on terrorism (including in Afghanistan)," as well as operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and Haiti. In this report, the President noted that U.S. anti-terror related activities were underway in Georgia, Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, and Eritrea. He further noted that U.S. combat-equipped military personnel continued to be deployed in Kosovo as part of the NATO-led KFOR (1,900 personnel); in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of the NATO-led SFOR (about 1,100 personnel); and approximately 1,800 military personnel were deployed in Haiti as part of the U.N. Multinational Interim Force..

2004: Bosnia; Kosovo; Iraq; Afghanistan; Djibouti; Kenya; Ethiopia; Eritrea; Yemen

On November 4, 2004, the President sent to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a consolidated report giving details of multiple ongoing United States military deployments and operations "in support of the global war on terrorism." These deployments, support or military operations include activities in Afghanistan, Djibouti, as well as Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo. In this report, the President noted that U.S. anti-terror related activities were underway in Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, and Eritrea. He further noted that U.S. combat-equipped military personnel continued to be deployed in Kosovo as part of the NATO-led KFOR (1,800 personnel); and in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of the NATO-led SFOR (about 1,000 personnel). Meanwhile, he stated that the United States continued to deploy more than 135,000 military personnel in Iraq.

2005: Iraq; Kenya; Ethiopia; Yemen; Eritrea; Djibouti; Kosovo; Bosnia

On May 20, 2005, the President sent to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a consolidated report giving details of multiple ongoing United States military deployments and operations "in support of the global war on terrorism," as well as operations in Iraq, where about 139,000 U.S. military personnel were deployed. U.S. forces are also deployed in Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, Eritrea, and Djibouti assisting in "enhancing counter- terrorism capabilities" of these nations. The President further noted that U.S. combat-equipped military personnel continued to be deployed in Kosovo as part of the NATO-led KFOR (1,700 personnel). Approximately 235 U.S. personnel are also deployed in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of the NATO Headquarters-Sarajevo who assist in defense reform and perform operational tasks, such as counter-terrorism and supporting the International Criminal Court for the Former Yugoslavia.

2005: Kenya; Ethiopia; Yemen; Djibouti; Kosovo; Bosnia

On December 7, 2005, the President sent to Congress "consistent" with the War Powers Resolution, a consolidated report giving details of multiple ongoing United States military deployments and operations "in support of the global war on terrorism," and in support of the Multinational Force in Iraq, where about 160,000 U.S. military personnel were deployed. U.S. forces were also deployed in the Horn of Africa region�Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, and Djibouti�assisting in "enhancing counter-terrorism capabilities" of these nations.

The President further noted that U.S. combat-equipped military personnel continued to be deployed in Kosovo as part of the NATO-led KFOR (1,700 personnel). Approximately 220 U.S. personnel were also deployed in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of the NATO Headquarters- Sarajevo who assist in defense reform and perform operational tasks, such as "counter-terrorism and supporting the International Criminal Court for the Former Yugoslavia."

2006: Djibouti; Bosnia; Kosovo; Horn of Africa

On June 15, 2006, the President sent to Congress, "consistent" with the War Powers Resolution, a consolidated report giving details of multiple ongoing United States military deployments and operations "in support of the war on terror," and in Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and as part of the Multinational Force (MNF) in Iraq.

About 131,000 military personnel were deployed in Iraq. U.S. forces were also deployed in the Horn of Africa region, and in Djibouti to support necessary operations against al-Qaida and other international terrorists operating in the region.

U.S. military personnel continue to support the NATO-led KFOR. The U.S. contribution to KFOR was about 1,700 military personnel. The NATO Headquarters-Sarajevo was established in November 22, 2004, as a successor to its stabilization operations in Bosnia- Herzegovina to continue to assist in implementing the peace agreement.

Approximately 250 U.S. personnel were assigned to the NATO Headquarters-Sarajevo to assist in defense reform and perform operational tasks, such as "counter-terrorism and supporting the International Criminal Court for the Former Yugoslavia."

2006: Lebanon

On July 18, 2006, the President reported to Congress "consistent" with the War Powers Resolution, that in response to the security threat posed in Lebanon to U.S. Embassy personnel and citizens and designated third country personnel, he had deployed combat-equipped military helicopters and military personnel to Beirut to assist in the departure of the persons under threat from Lebanon. The President noted that additional combat-equipped U.S. military forces may be deployed "to Lebanon, Cyprus and other locations, as necessary" to assist further departures of persons from Lebanon and to provide security. He further stated that once the threat to U.S. citizens and property has ended, the U.S. military forces would redeploy.

2006: Kosovo; Bosnia; Iraq; Horn of Africa; Djibouti; Yemen

On December 15, 2006, the President sent to Congress, "consistent" with the War Powers Resolution, a consolidated report giving details of multiple ongoing United States military deployments and operations "in support of the war on terror," in Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and as part of the Multinational Force (MNF) in Iraq.

About 134,000 military personnel are deployed in Iraq. U.S. forces were also deployed in the Horn of Africa region, and in Djibouti to support necessary operations against al-Qaida and other international terrorists operating in the region, including Yemen.

U.S. military personnel continue to support the NATO-led KFOR. The U.S. contribution to KFOR was about 1,700 military personnel. The NATO Headquarters- Sarajevo was established in November 22, 2004, as a successor to its stabilization operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina to continue to assist in implementing the peace agreement. Approximately 100 U.S. personnel were assigned to the NATO Headquarters-Sarajevo to assist in defense reform and perform operational tasks, such as "counter-terrorism and supporting the International Criminal Court for the Former Yugoslavia."

2007: Afghanistan; Kosovo

On June 15, 2007, the President sent to Congress, "consistent" with the War Powers Resolution, a consolidated report giving details of ongoing United States military deployments and operations "in support of the war on terror," and in support of the NATO- led KFOR.

The President reported that various U.S. "combat-equipped and combat-support forces" were deployed to "a number of locations in the Central, Pacific, European (KFOR), and Southern Command areas of operation" and were engaged in combat operations against al-Qaida terrorists and their supporters. The United States is currently "pursuing and engaging remnant al-Qaida and Taliban fighters in Afghanistan." U.S. forces in Afghanistan currently total approximately 25,945. Of this total, "approximately 14,340 are assigned to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan."

The U.S. military continues to support peacekeeping operations in Kosovo, specifically the NATO-led KFOR. Currently, the U.S. contribution to KFOR in Kosovo is approximately 1,584 military personnel.

2007: Afghanistan; Kosovo

On December 14, 2007, the President sent to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a consolidated report giving details of ongoing United States military deployments and operations "in support of the war on terror," and in support of the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR).

The President reported that various U.S. "combat-equipped and combat-support forces" were deployed to "a number of locations in the Central, Pacific, European, and Southern Command areas of operation" and were engaged in combat operations against al-Qaida terrorists and their supporters. The United States is currently "pursuing and engaging remnant al- Qaida and Taliban fighters in Afghanistan." U.S. forces in Afghanistan currently total approximately 25,900. Of this total, "approximately 15,180 are assigned to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan."

The U.S. military continues to support peacekeeping operations in Kosovo, specifically, the NATO-led KFOR. Currently, the U.S. contribution to KFOR in Kosovo is approximately 1,498 military personnel.

2008: Afghanistan; Kosovo

On June 13, 2008, the President sent to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a consolidated report giving details of ongoing United States military deployments and operations "in support of the war on terror," and in support of the NATO- led KFOR.

The President reported that various U.S. "combat-equipped and combat-support forces" were deployed to "a number of locations in the Central, Pacific, European, and Southern Command areas of operation" and were engaged in combat operations against al-Qaida terrorists and their supporters. The United States is actively "pursuing and engaging remnant al-Qaida and Taliban fighters in Afghanistan." U.S. forces in Afghanistan currently total approximately 31,122. Of this total, "approximately 14,275 are assigned to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan."

The U.S. military continues to support peacekeeping operations in Kosovo, specifically, the NATO-led KFOR. Currently, the U.S. contribution to KFOR in Kosovo is approximately 1,500 military personnel.

2008: Afghanistan; Kosovo

On December 16. 2008, the President sent to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a consolidated report giving details of ongoing United States military deployments and operations "in support of the war on terror," and in support of the NATO-led KFOR.

The President reported that various U.S. "combat-equipped and combat-support forces" were deployed to "a number of locations in the Centrol, Pacific, European, Southern, and Africa Command areas of operation" and were engaged in combat operations against al-Qaida and their supporters. The United States is "actively pursuing and engaging remnant al-Qaida and Taliban fighters in Afghanistan." U.S. forces in Afghanistan total approximately 31, 000. Of this total, "approximately 13, 000 are assigned to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan."

The U.S. military continues to support peacekeeping operations in Kosovo, specifically the NATO-led KFOR. The current U.S. contribution to KFOR in Kosovo is about 1,500 military personnel.

2009: Afghanistan; Iraq; Kosovo; Horn of Africa

On June 15, 2009, the President sent to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a supplemental consolidated report, giving details of "ongoing contingency operations overseas."

The report noted that the total number of U.S. forces in Afghanistan was "approximately 58,000," of which approximately 20,000 are assigned to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. The United States continues to pursue and engage "remaining al-Qa'ida and Taliban forces in Afghanistan."

The United States also continues to deploy military forces in support of the Multinational Force (MNF) in Iraq. The current U.S. contribution to this effort is "approximately 138,000 U.S. military personnel."

U.S. military operations continue in Kosovo, as part of the NATO-led KFOR. Presently the United States contributes approximately 1,400 U.S. military personnel to KFOR.

In addition, the United states continues to deploy "U.S. combat-equipped forces to help enhance the counterterrorism capabilities of our friends and allies" not only in the Horn of Africa region, but globally through "maritime interception operations on the high seas" aimed at blocking the "movement, arming and financing of international terrorists."

2009: Afghanistan; Iraq; Kosovo; Horn of Africa

On December 5, 2009, the President sent to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a consolidated report, giving details of "global deployments of U.S. Armed Forces equipped for combat." The report detailed "ongoing U.S. contingency operations overseas."

The report noted that the total number of U.S. forces in Afghanistan was "approximately 68,000," of which approximately 34,000 are assigned to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. The United States continues to pursue and engage "remaining al-Qa'ida and Taliban forces in Afghanistan." The United States has deployed "various combat-equipped forces to a number of locations in the Central, Pacific, European, Southern and African Command areas of operation" in support of anti-terrorist and anti-al-Qa'ida actions.

The United States also continues to deploy military forces in Iraq to "maintain security and stability" there. These Iraqi operations continue pursuant to the terms of a bilateral agreement between the United States and Iraq, which entered into force on January 1, 2009. The current U.S. force level in Iraq is "approximately 116,000 U.S. military personnel."

U.S. military operations continue in Kosovo, as part of the NATO-led KFOR. Presently the United States contributes approximately 1,475 U.S. military personnel to KFOR. In addition, the United States continues to deploy "U.S. combat- equipped forces to assist in enhancing the counterterrorism capabilities of our friends and allies" not only in the Horn of Africa region, but globally through "maritime interception operations on the high seas" aimed at blocking the "movement, arming and financing of international terrorists."

2010: Afghanistan; Iraq; Kosovo

On June 15, 2010, the President sent to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a consolidated report giving details of "deployments of U.S. Armed Forces equipped for combat."

The report noted that the total number of U.S. forces in Afghanistan was "approximately 87,000," of which over 62,000 are assigned to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. The United States continues combat operations "against al-Qa'ida terrorists and their Taliban supporters" in Afghanistan. The United States has deployed "combat-equipped forces to a number of locations in the U.S. Central, Pacific, European, Southern and African Command areas of operation" in support of anti-terrorist and anti-al-Qa'ida actions. The United States also continues to deploy military forces in Iraq to "maintain security and stability" there.

These Iraqi operations continue pursuant to the terms of a bilateral agreement between the United States and Iraq, which entered into force on January 1, 2009. The current U.S. force level in Iraq is "approximately 95,000 U.S. military personnel."

U.S. military operations continue in Kosovo, as part of the NATO-led KFOR. Presently, the United States contributes approximately 1,074 U.S. military personnel to KFOR.

In addition, the United States continues to "conduct maritime interception operations on the high seas" directed at "stopping the movement, arming and financing of international terrorist groups."

2010: Afghanistan; Iraq; Kosovo

On December 15, 2010, the President submitted to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a consolidated report, detailing "deployments of U.S. Armed Forces equipped for combat."

The report noted that the total number of U.S. forces in Afghanistan was "approximately 97,500," of which over 81,500 were assigned to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. The United States is continuing combat operations "against al-Qa'ida terrorists and their Taliban supporters" in Afghanistan. The United States has deployed "combat-equipped forces to a number of locations in the U.S. Central, Pacific, European, Southern and African Command areas of operation" in support of anti-terrorist and anti-al-Qa'ida actions.

In addition, the United States continues to conduct "maritime interception operations on the high seas in the areas of responsibility of the geographic combatant commands" directed at "stopping the movement, arming and financing of international terrorist groups."

The United States also continues to deploy military forces in Iraq in support of Iraqi efforts to "maintain security and stability" there. These Iraqi operations continue pursuant to the terms of a bilateral agreement between the United States and Iraq, which entered into force on January 1, 2009. The current U.S. force level in Iraq is "approximately 48,400 U.S. military personnel."

U.S. military operations also continue in Kosovo, as part of the NATO-led KFOR. The United States currently contributes approximately 808 U.S. military personnel to KFOR.

2011: Afghanistan; Egypt; Iraq; Libya; Kosovo

On June 15, 2011, the President sent to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a supplemental consolidated report giving details of "global deployments of U.S. Armed Forces equipped for combat." The report detailed ongoing U.S. contingency operations overseas.

The report noted that the total number of U.S. forces in Afghanistan was "approximately 99,000," of which approximately 83,000 are assigned to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. The United States continues to pursue and engage "remaining al-Qa'ida and Taliban fighters in Afghanistan." The United States has deployed various "combat-equipped forces" to a number of locations in the Central, Pacific, European, Southern and African Command areas of operation in support of anti-terrorist and anti-al-Qa'ida actions. This includes the deployment of U.S. military forces globally to assist in enhancing the counterterrorism capabilities of our friends and allies through maritime interception operations on the high seas "aimed at stopping the movement, arming and financing of certain international terrorist groups."

A combat-equipped security force of about "40 U.S. military personnel from the U.S. Central Command" was deployed to Cairo, Egypt, on January 31, 2011, for the sole purpose of "protecting American citizens and property." That force remains at the U.S. Embassy in Cairo.

The United States also continues to deploy military forces in Iraq to help it "maintain security and stability" there. These Iraqi operations continue pursuant to the terms of a bilateral agreement between the United States and Iraq, which entered into force on January 1, 2009. The current U.S. force level in Iraq is "approximately 45,000 U.S. military personnel.

In Libya, since April 4, 2011, the United States has transferred responsibility for military operations there to NATO, and U.S. involvement "has assumed a supporting role in the coalition's efforts." U.S. support in Libya has been limited to "intelligence, logistical support, and search and rescue assistance." The U.S. military aircraft have also been used to assist in the "suppression and destruction of air defenses in support of the no-fly zone" over Libya. Since April 23, 2011, the United States has supported the coalition effort in Libya through use of "unmanned aerial vehicles against a limited set of clearly defined targets" there. Except in the case of operations to "rescue the crew of a U.S. aircraft" on March 21, 2011, "the United States has deployed no ground forces to Libya."

U.S. military operations continue in Kosovo, as part of the NATO-led KFOR. Presently the United States contributes approximately 800 U.S. military personnel to KFOR.

2011: Libya

On March 21, 2011, the President submitted to Congress "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a report stating that at "approximately 3:00 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time, on March 19, 2011," he had directed U.S. military forces to commence "operations to assist an international effort authorized by the United Nations (U.N.) Security Council and undertaken with the support of European allies and Arab partners, to prevent a humanitarian catastrophe and address the threat posed to international peace and security by the crisis in Libya."

He further stated that U.S. military forces, "under the command of Commander, U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) began a series of strikes against air defense systems and military airfields for the purposes of preparing a no-fly zone."

These actions were part of "the multilateral response authorized under U.N. Security Council Resolution 1973," and the President added that "these strikes will be limited in their nature, duration, and scope. Their purpose is to support an international coalition as it takes all necessary measures to enforce the terms of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1973. These limited U.S. actions will set the stage for further action by other coalition partners."

The President noted that United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 authorized Member States, under Chapter VII of the U.N. Charter, to take all necessary measures to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack in Libya, including the establishment and enforcement of a "no-fly zone" in the airspace of Libya.

United States military efforts are discrete and focused on employing unique U.S. military capabilities to set the conditions for our European allies and Arab partners to carry out the measures authorized by the U.N. Security Council Resolution.

The President stated further that the "United States has not deployed ground forces into Libya. United States forces are conducting a limited and well-defined mission in support of international efforts to protect civilians and prevent a humanitarian disaster." Accordingly, he added, "U.S. forces have targeted the Qadhafi regime's air defense systems, command and control structures, and other capabilities of Qadhafi's armed forces used to attack civilians and civilian populated areas."

It was the intent of the United States, he said, to "seek a rapid, but responsible, transition of operations to coalition, regional, or international organizations that are postured to continue activities as may be necessary to realize the objectives of U.N. Security Council Resolutions 1970 and 1973." The President said that the actions he had directed were "in the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States." He took them, the President stated, "pursuant to my constitutional authority to conduct U.S. foreign relations and as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive."

2011: Uganda; South Sudan; Central African Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo

On October 14, 2011, the President submitted to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a report stating that "he had authorized a small number of combat-equipped U.S. forces to deploy to central Africa to provide assistance to regional forces that are working toward the removal of Joseph Kony," leader of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), from the battlefield.

For over two decades the LRA has murdered, kidnapped, and raped tens of thousands of men, women, and children throughout central Africa, and has continued to commit atrocities in South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Central African Republic. The U.S. Armed Forces, the President noted, would be a "significant contribution toward counter-LRA efforts in central Africa." The President stated that on "October 12, 2011, the initial team of U.S. military personnel with appropriate combat equipment deployed to Uganda." In the "next month, additional forces will deploy, including a second combat-equipped team and associated headquarters, communications, and logistics personnel."

The President further stated that the "total number of U.S. military personnel deploying for this mission is approximately 100. These forces will act as advisors to partner forces that have the goals of removing from the battlefield Joseph Kony and other senior leadership of the LRA." U.S. forces "will provide information, advice, and assistance to select partner nation forces." With the approval of the respective host nations, "elements of these U.S. forces will deploy into Uganda, South Sudan, the Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

The support provided by U.S. forces will enhance regional efforts against the LRA." The President emphasized that even though the "U.S. forces are combat-equipped, they will only be providing information, advice, and assistance to partner nation forces, and they will not themselves engage LRA forces unless necessary for self-defense. All appropriate precautions have been taken to ensure the safety of U.S. military personnel during their deployment."

The President took note in his report that Congress had previously "expressed support for increased, comprehensive U.S. efforts to help mitigate and eliminate the threat posed by the LRA to civilians and regional stability" through the passage of the Lord's Resistance Army Disarmament and Northern Uganda Recovery Act of 2009, P.L. 111-172, enacted May 24, 2010.

2011: Afghanistan; Iraq; Libya; Kosovo

On December 15, 2011, the President submitted to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a supplemental consolidated report, giving details of "deployments of U.S. Armed Forces equipped for combat." The report detailed ongoing U.S. contingency operations overseas.

The report noted that the total number of U.S. forces in Afghanistan was "approximately 93,000," of which approximately 78,000 are assigned to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. The United States continues to pursue and engage "remaining al-Qa'ida and Taliban fighters in Afghanistan."

The United States has deployed various "combat-equipped forces" to a number of locations in the Central, Pacific, European, Southern, and African Command areas of operation in support of anti-terrorist and anti-al-Qa'ida actions. This includes the deployment of U.S. military forces globally: "including special operations and other forces" for "sensitive operations" in various places, as well as forces to assist in enhancing the counterterrorism capabilities of our friends and allies. U.S. forces also have engaged in maritime interception operations on the high seas "aimed at stopping the movement, arming and financing of certain international terrorist groups."

The United States continued to deploy military forces in Iraq to help it "maintain security and stability" there. These Iraqi operations were undertaken pursuant to the terms of a bilateral agreement between the United States and Iraq, which entered into force on January 1, 2009. The U.S. force level in Iraq on October 28, 2011, was "36,001 U.S. military personnel." The United States was committed to withdraw U.S. forces from Iraq by December 31, 2011. (This occurred, as scheduled, after this report was submitted.)

In Libya, after April 4, 2011, the United States transferred responsibility for military operations there to NATO, and U.S. involvement "assumed a supporting role in the coalition's efforts." U.S. support in Libya was limited to "intelligence, logistical support, and search and rescue assistance." The U.S. military aircraft were also used to assist in the "suppression and destruction of air defenses in support of the no-fly zone" over Libya. After April 23, 2011, the United States supported the coalition effort in Libya through use of "unmanned aerial vehicles against a limited set of clearly defined targets" there. Except in the case of operations to "rescue the crew of a U.S. aircraft" on March 21, 2011, and deploying 16 U.S. military personnel to aid in re-establishing the U.S. Embassy in Tripoli in September 2011, "the U.S. deployed no ground forces to Libya." On October 27, 2011, the United Nations terminated the "no-fly zone" effective October 31, 2011.

NATO terminated its mission during this same time. U.S. military operations continue in Kosovo, as part of the NATO-led KFOR. Presently the United States contributes approximately 800 U.S. military personnel to KFOR.

2012: Somalia

On January 26, 2012, the President submitted to Congress, "consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a report detailing a successful U.S. Special Operations Forces operation in Somalia of January 24, 2012, to rescue Ms. Jessica Buchanan, a U.S. citizen who had been kidnapped by a group linked to Somali pirates and financiers. This operation was undertaken "by a small number of joint combat-equipped U.S. forces" following receipt of reliable intelligence establishing her location in Somalia. A Danish national, Poul Hagen Thisted, kidnapped with Ms. Buchanan, was also rescued with her.

2012: Afghanistan; Somalia; Yemen; Central Africa Republic; Kosovo; Uganda; South Sudan; Democratic Republic of the Congo

On June 15, 2012, the President reported to Congress "consistent with" the War Powers Resolution, a consolidated report regarding various deployments of U.S. Armed Forces equipped for combat. In the efforts in support of U.S. counterterrorism (CT) objectives against al-Qa'ida, the Taliban and, associated forces, he noted that U.S. forces engaged in Afghanistan in the above effort were "approximately 90,000."

With regard to other counter-terrorism operations, the President stated that the United States had deployed "U.S. combat-equipped forces to assist in enhancing the CT capabilities of our friends and allies including special operations and other forces for sensitive operations in various locations around the world." He noted that the "U.S. military has taken direct action in Somalia against members of al-Qa'ida, including those who are also members of al-Shabaab, who are engaged in efforts to carry out terrorist attacks against the United States and our interests."

The President further stated that the U.S. military had been "working closely with the Yemeni government to operationally and ultimately eliminate the terrorist threat posed by al-Qa-ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), the most active and dangerous affiliate of al-Qa'ida today." He added that these "joint efforts have resulted in direct action against a limited number of AQAP operatives and senior leaders in that country who posed a terrorist threat to the United States and our interests."

The President noted that he would direct "additional measures against al-Qa'ida, the Taliban, and associated forces to protect U.S. citizens and interests." Further information on such matters is provided in a "classified annex to this report." Other military operations reported by the President include the "deployment of U.S. combat- equipped military personnel to Uganda to serve as advisors to regional forces that are working to apprehend or remove Joseph Kony and other senior Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) leaders from the battlefield and to protect local populations." The total number of U.S. military personnel deployed for this mission is "approximately 90," and elements of these U.S. forces have been sent to "forward locations in the LRA-affected areas of the Republic of South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Central African Republic." These U.S. forces "will not engage LRA forces except in self-defense."

The President also reported that presently the United States was contributing approximately 817 military personnel to the NATO-led KFOR in Kosovo. He also reported that the U.S. remained prepared to engage in "maritime interception operations" intended to stop the "movement, arming, and financing of certain international terrorist groups," as well as stopping "proliferation by sea of weapons of mass destruction and related materials." Additional details about these efforts are included in "the classified annex" to this report.

2012: Libya; Yemen

On September 14, 2012, the President reported to Congress, "consistent with" the War Powers Resolution, that on September 12, 2012, he ordered deployed to Libya "a security force from the U.S. Africa Command" to "support the security of U.S. personnel in Libya." This action was taken in response to the attack on the U.S. "diplomatic post in Benghazi, Libya," that had killed four America citizens, including U.S. Ambassador John Christopher Stevens.

The President added on September 13, 2012, that "an additional security force arrived in Yemen in response to security threats there." He further stated that: "Although these security forces are equipped for combat, these movements have been undertaken solely for the purpose of protecting American citizens and property." These security forces will remain in Libya and in Yemen, he noted, "until the security situation becomes such that they are no longer needed."

2012: Philippines

Southern Philippines Humanitarian Assistance for Typhoon Bopha. On December 17, 2012, U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM) reported all DOD humanitarian assistance and military-to-military search and rescue assistance had been completed in the southeastern Philippines following Typhoon Bopha. According to Pentagon Press Secretary George Little at the time, "U.S. forces provided planning, coordination, personnel, water purification teams, and aircraft assets that flew 24 sorties to deliver 756,800 pounds of relief supplies, flew 56 hours in support of search and rescue operations and provided 60 hours of search and rescue coverage. PACOM forces are returning back to their home stations or are proceeding to follow-on taskings."

2013: Afghanistan

On January 31, 2013, DOD identified three major units to deploy as part of the ongoing rotation of forces operating in Afghanistan. The scheduled rotation involved one Infantry Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) with roughly 2,250 personnel from the 4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia; a Combat Aviation Brigade (CAB) with roughly 2,200 personnel from the 10th Combat Aviation Brigade, 10th Mountain Division, Fort Drum, New York; and a corps headquarters with roughly 500 personnel from the III Corps Headquarters, Fort Hood, Texas, in spring 2013.

2013: Niger

On February 22, 2013, the President reported in a letter dated February 20 to congressional leaders, that "the last 40 of the approximately 100 military personnel had arrived in Niger and were deployed with weapons for the purpose of providing their own force protection and security." President Obama further stated, "This deployment will provide support for intelligence collection and will also facilitate intelligence sharing with French forces conducting operations in Mali, and with other partners in the region."

2013: Afghanistan

On April 10, 2013, DOD identified four major units to deploy as part of the upcoming rotation of forces operating in Afghanistan. The scheduled rotation is ongoing and involves one cavalry regiment, the 2nd Cavalry Regiment from Vilseck, Germany, with roughly 3,000 personnel; one armored brigade combat team (ABCT) with roughly 3,200 personnel from the 2nd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood, Texas; one infantry brigade combat team (IBCT) with roughly 2,200 personnel from the 3rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division, Fort Knox, Kentucky; and a division headquarters with roughly 450 personnel from the 4th Infantry Division Headquarters, Fort Carson, Colorado, to rotate in summer 2013.

2013: Jordan

Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel ordered the deployment of more American troops to Jordan. He announced the deployment on April 17, 2013, in a statement on Syria before the Senate Armed Services Committee. He said that U.S. troops will work alongside Jordanian forces to "improve readiness and prepare for a number of scenarios." The troops, which number up to 200, are from the headquarters of the 1st Armored Division at Fort Bliss, Texas, according to DOD sources.

2013: Afghanistan; Somalia; Yemen; Central Africa

On June 14, 2013, President Obama sent Congress a letter "consistent with" the War Powers Resolution, on U.S. military operations against al-Qa'ida, the Taliban, and associated forces, and in support of related U.S. counterterrorism objectives in Afghanistan and elsewhere. There are approximately 62,000 U.S. forces in Afghanistan of which 49,000 of these forces are assigned to the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). Further directed reduction of forces will continue to the 34,000 level by February 12, 2014.

2013: Jordan

President Obama sent Congress a letter on June 21, 2013, regarding a combat-equipped detachment of 700 U.S. troops remaining in Jordan following training exercises that ended on June 20. This was at the request of the government of Jordan and in furtherance of U.S. national security and foreign policy interests.

2013: Afghanistan

On July 11, 2013, DOD identified three units to deploy as part of the upcoming rotation of forces in Afghanistan. The scheduled rotation involves elements of one infantry brigade combat team (IBCT) with roughly 2,000 personnel; and elements of two combat aviation brigades, one with roughly 1,450 personnel and one with roughly 2,100 personnel, to rotate in Fall 2013 in support of the combatant commander's mission requirements. The deploying units include the 3rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, Fort Drum, New York; the 1st Cavalry Division Combat Aviation Brigade, Fort Hood, Texas; and the 1st Infantry Division Combat Aviation Brigade, Fort Riley, Kansas.

2013: Afghanistan

On September 24, 2013, DOD identified six units to deploy as part of the upcoming rotation of forces operating in Afghanistan. The scheduled rotation involves elements of two infantry brigade combat teams (IBCT)�one with roughly 1,830 personnel (4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division) and one with roughly 2,000 personnel (2nd Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division); elements of one armored brigade combat team (ABCT) with roughly 1,160 personnel (3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division); elements of one combat aviation brigade with roughly 1,800 personnel (159th Combat Aviation Brigade, 101st Airborne Division); a division headquarters element with roughly 630 personnel (10th Mountain Division Headquarters); and a corps headquarters element with roughly 560 personnel (XVIII Airborne Corps Headquarters) to rotate in winter 2013-2014 in support of the combatant commander's mission requirements.

The deploying units include Brigade Combat Teams/Combat Aviation Brigades: 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division, Fort Campbell, KY; 4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division, Fort Carson, CO; 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, Fort Bliss, TX; and 159th Combat Aviation Brigade, 101st Airborne Division, Fort Campbell, KY; Division Headquarters: 10th Mountain Division Headquarters, Fort Drum, NY; and Corps Headquarters: XVIII Airborne Corps Headquarters, Fort Bragg, NC.

2013: Leyte, Philippines

Humanitarian Assistance for Typhoon Haiyan. On November 9, 2013, the Defense Secretary directed the U.S. Pacific Command to support humanitarian relief operations in the Philippines after Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda). The aircraft carrier USS George Washington (CVN 73) and other U.S. Navy ships were ordered to the Philippines.

The aircraft carrier, which carries 5,000 sailors and more than 80 aircraft, was in Hong Kong for a port visit. In addition to the carrier were the cruisers USS Antietam (CG 54) and USS Cowpens (CG 63), the destroyers USS Mustin (DDG 89) and USS Lassen (DDG 82) and the supply ship USNS Charles Drew (T-AKE-10). Embarked on board the USS George Washington, was Carrier Air Wing Five (CVW-5), a collection of aircraft designed to perform various functions including disaster relief. Included were the "Golden Falcons" of Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron 12 flying the MH-60S Seahawk and the "Saberhawks" of Helicopter Maritime Strike Squadron 77 flying the MH-60R Seahawk. See CRS Report R43309, Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda): U.S. and International Response to Philippines Disaster, for more information about U.S. relief efforts.

2013: Burundi; Central African Republic

A small U.S. Air Force support team and two C-17 Globemaster III aircraft began airlift operations on December 12, 2013, in response to a French request for airlift support. The U.S. airmen conducted 16 flights from Burundi to the Central African Republic transporting 857 Burundi troops, 73 pallets of equipment, and 18 Burundian military vehicles. Fewer than 10 Americans remain on the ground serving as liaisons with the French military when operations were completed on December 30, 2013.

2013: Afghanistan

On December 13, 2013, DOD identified five units to deploy as part of the upcoming rotation of forces operating in Afghanistan. The scheduled rotation involves elements of one infantry brigade combat team (IBCT) with roughly 3,200 personnel (1st Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division); elements of one cavalry regiment (CR) with roughly 2,050 personnel (3rd Cavalry Regiment); elements of two combat aviation brigades - one with roughly 1,700 personnel and the other with roughly 1,000 personnel (16th Combat Aviation Brigade and 12th Combat Aviation Brigade), and a division headquarters element with roughly 350 personnel (1st Cavalry Division Headquarters) to rotate in spring 2014 in support of the combatant commander's mission requirements.

The deploying units include Brigade Combat Teams/Combat Aviation Brigades: 1st Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division, Fort Bragg, NC; 3rd Cavalry Regiment, Fort Hood, TX; 16th Combat Aviation Brigade, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, WA; and 12th Combat Aviation Brigade, Ansbach, Germany, and Division Headquarters: 1st Cavalry Division Headquarters, Fort Hood, TX. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy, for more information.

2013: South Sudan

On December 18, 2013, at the request of the U.S. State Department, DOD directed two U.S. C-130 aircraft to evacuate 120 personnel from the embassy in Juba, the capital of South Sudan, to Nairobi, Kenya. In President Obama's report to the Congress on December 19, 2013, he provided information on the deployment of U.S. forces to support the security of U.S. citizens and personnel at the U.S. embassy in South Sudan consistent with the War Powers Resolution (P.L. 93- 148). On December 21, 2013, 46 additional U.S. military personnel deployed by military aircraft to the area of Bor, South Sudan, to conduct an operation to evacuate U.S. citizens and personnel. After the aircraft came under fire, the operation was curtailed due to security considerations, and the aircraft and all military personnel onboard departed without completing the evacuation. See CRS Report R43344, The Crisis in South Sudan.

2014: South Korea

On January 7, 2014, DoD announced the rotational deployment of the U.S. Army's 1st Battalion, 12th Cavalry Regiment, 1st U.S. Cavalry Division from Fort Hood, Texas, to Camps Hovey and Stanley, Republic of Korea, on February 1, 2014. Comprised of approximately 800 soldiers, this combined arms battalion will deploy to conduct operations in support of U.S. Forces Korea and the Eighth Army. This action supports the U.S defense commitment to the Republic of Korea as specified by the mutual defense treaty and presidential agreements.

2014: Uganda; South Sudan; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Central African Republic

President Obama announced on March 23, 2014, the deployment of U.S. aircraft, aircrews, and support personnel to central Africa. The total number of U.S. military personnel deployed for this mission is about 280 and may increase to as many as 300. According to the president's letter to Congress, "The aircraft and personnel providing the enhanced air mobility support will deploy to the Lord's Resistance Army-affected areas of central Africa episodically, as they are available, and consistent with other Department of Defense requirements."

2014: Iraq

On June 19, 2014, President Obama announced his decision to deploy 300 U.S. military personnel to advise the Iraqi security forces. These special operators will secure the U.S. embassy and personnel operating inside of Iraq, assess the situation on the ground, help evaluate gaps in Iraqi security forces, and increase their capacity to counter the threat posed by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).4 See CRS Report R43612, The "Islamic State" Crisis and U.S. Policy.

2014: Iraq

June 30, 2014, President Obama ordered an additional 200 military personnel deployed to Iraq to reinforce security at the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad and other U.S. facilities as well as at the city's international airport.

2014: Ukraine

On August 6, 2014, at the request of the State U.S. Department, a dozen American troops from U.S. European Command arrived in Kiev, Ukraine, to help investigate the downing of the Malaysian airliner MH17 that killed all 298 passengers aboard. These specialists will assist State Department personnel in Kiev and not visit the crash site in eastern Ukraine where there is fighting between the Ukrainian forces of the central government and separatists backed by Russia. See CRS Report RL33460, Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy, for more detail.

2014: Iraq

On August 13, 2014, Defense Secretary Hagel announced that President Obama has ordered 130 new assessors to deploy to Erbil, Iraq, to assess the scope of the humanitarian mission and develop additional humanitarian assistance options in support of displaced Iraqi civilians trapped on Sinjar Mountain by the ISIL.7 See CRS Report R43612, The "Islamic State" Crisis and U.S. Policy.

2014: Poland

DOD announced on August 14, 2014, that 600 soldiers from the 1st Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood, Texas, will rotate to Poland as the next unit to participate in the reassurance initiative. The brigade will be the next unit to take part in ongoing land forces exercises that fall under the umbrella of Operation Atlantic Resolve. According to Pentagon officials, "the United States is demonstrating its continued commitment to collective security through a series of actions designed to reassure NATO allies and partners of America's dedication to enduring peace and stability in the region, in light of the Russian intervention in Ukraine."8 See CRS report, CRS Report R43478, NATO: Response to the Crisis in Ukraine and Security Concerns in Central and Eastern Europe.

Data sources