The Government and Labor have agreed on new temporary laws, to be introduced today, which will restrict content published by the Yes and No campaigns and apply until mid-November.
It includes measures to prevent vilification, intimidation, or threats to cause harm on the basis of the sexual orientation, gender identity, intersex status or the religious convictions of someone during the survey period.
Anyone found to have breached those provisions could be hit with a $12,000 fine and a court injunction.
The Law Council of Australia is warning that people who fail to correctly authorise offensive material during the same-sex marriage debate face more than $25,000 in fines.
President Fiona McLeod said campaigners must identify who is responsible for content.
"If material is published during the period of the survey that fails to identify who the author is and the identifying features of that author then there's a civil penalty that applies to that material," she said.
"That's very similar provisions in the Australian Electoral Act."
Acting Special Minister of State Mathias Cormann has been negotiating with Labor on specific safeguards ahead of the optional ballot.
Senator Cormann said Parliament needed to implement the measures because the survey was being conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the "usual safeguards" under electoral laws did not apply.
"We want this process to be fair and for Australians to get the opportunity to have their say in an appropriate environment," Senator Cormann said in a statement.
Labor will support the bill, but Shadow Attorney-General Mark Dreyfus said it "does not in any way legitimise this survey process, which has been foisted upon Australians at a massive cost".
The legislation includes a provision for broadcasters such as the ABC and SBS to give "reasonable opportunities to broadcast opposing views".
Ms McLeod said it was an unusual provision which "could be seen as an attack on editorial independence".
The bill also cites the Electoral Commission as one of the bodies to monitor whether someone has breached the Act.
The Government wants the safeguards to pass Parliament this week, as close to 600,000 survey forms have already been mailed to homes across Australia.