The United States has imposed sanctions on 52 people and entities for alleged human rights violations and corruption, including Myanmar general Maung Maung Soe, who oversaw a brutal crackdown against the Rohingya Muslim minority.
Others hit with sanctions included Benjamin Bol Mel, who has served as an adviser to South Sudan President Salva Kiir, former Gambian leader Yahya Jammeh, and Israeli billionaire Dan Gertler, a friend of Democratic Republic of Congo President Joseph Kabila, the US Treasury Department said.
The United States had "examined credible evidence of Maung Maung Soe's activities, including allegations against Burmese security forces of extrajudicial killings, sexual violence and arbitrary arrest as well as the widespread burning of villages," the department said.
Maung Maung Soe was in charge of the operation that drove more than 600,000 Rohingya Muslims to flee mostly Buddhist Myanmar to Bangladesh.
More than 10,000 people were likely to have been killed during and after the "clearance operations", according to medical charity Medicins Sans Frontieres.
The Rohingya have been trapped for decades in a vicious system of state-sponsored discrimination that satisfies the legal definition of apartheid, according to Amnesty International.
They now find themselves unwanted in Bangladesh, where they live in appalling conditions in cramped refugee camps.
The Myanmar army has previously issued a report denying all allegations of rape and killings by security forces.
The Myanmar Government spokesman was not immediately available for comment on the latest US sanctions.
"Today's announcement of sanctions demonstrates the United States will continue to pursue tangible and significant consequences for those who commit serious human rights abuse and engage in corruption," US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson said in a statement.
The sanctions are the first imposed under a US law called the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act, which was enacted last year.
The US action freezes any assets the sanctioned individuals and entities may hold under US jurisdiction and blocks Americans from dealing with them, which a senior US official said has the practical effect of largely cutting them off from the global financial system.
Among others targeted with sanctions were Gulnara Karimova, the daughter of former Uzbekistan leader Islam Karimov, the Treasury Department said, citing "corrupt activities".