North Korean leader Kim Jong-un and his late father Kim Jong-il used fraudulently obtained Brazilian passports to apply for visas to visit Western countries in the 1990s, five senior Western European security sources have told Reuters.
While North Korea's ruling family is known to have used travel documents obtained under false pretences, there are few specific examples.
"They used these Brazilian passports, which clearly show the photographs of Kim Jong-un and Kim Jong-il, to attempt to obtain visas from foreign embassies," one senior Western security source said on condition of anonymity.
"This shows the desire for travel and points to the ruling family's attempts to build a possible escape route," the security source said.
The North Korean embassy in Brazil declined to comment, while Brazil's foreign ministry said it was investigating.
A Brazilian source, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said the two passports in question were legitimate documents when sent out as blanks for consulates to issue.
Four other senior Western European security sources confirmed that the two Brazilian passports with photos of the Kims in the names of Josef Pwag and Ijong Tchoi were used to apply for visas in at least two Western countries.
It was unclear whether any visas were issued.
The passports may also have been used to travel to Brazil, Japan and Hong Kong, the security sources said.
Japanese newspaper Yomiuri Shimbun reported in 2011 that Kim Jong-un visited Tokyo as a child using a Brazilian passport in 1991 — before the issue date on the two Brazilian passports.
Call me Pwag, Josef Pwag
Both 10-year passports carry a stamp saying "Embassy of Brazil in Prague" with a February 26, 1996, issue date.
The security sources said facial recognition technology confirmed the photographs were those of Kim Jong-un and his father.
The passport with Kim Jong-un's photo was issued in the name of Josef Pwag with a date of birth of February 1, 1983.
So little is known about Kim Jong-un that even his birth date is disputed.
He would have been 12 to 14 years old when the Brazilian passport was issued.
Kim Jong-un is known to have been educated at an international school in Berne, Switzerland, where he pretended to be the son of an embassy chauffeur.
Kim Jong-il's passport was issued in the name Ijong Tchoi with a birth date of April 4, 1940.
Jong Il died in 2011 and his true birth date was in 1941.
Both passports list the holders' birthplaces as Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Reuters has only seen photocopies of the passports so was unable to discern if they had been tampered with.