A terrorism researcher has warned that Indonesia's laws are not sufficient to crack down on and prosecute Islamic State militants returning to the country.
Dr Solahudin, who is visiting lecturer at Melbourne University, told the ABC that Law 15 of the 2003 Eradicating Terrorism legislation — established following Bali bombings in October 2002 — had been under review for two years, but the process had been dogged by conflicts of interest from different authorities.
"The Government has been trying to revise the law, but the process has been very slow as the military wants to [be] involved," he said.
"The military wants to redefine the legislation to include armed rebellion groups such as Free Papua Movement, for example."
Meanwhile, Dr Solahudin, who is also a researcher at the Centre for Terrorism and Conflict at the University of Indonesia, said authorities had limited legal tools available to crack down on those who had returned from Islamic State conflict areas like Syria and Iraq.
"The act of terrorism — to be a crime punishable under Indonesian law — has to take place in Indonesia, not overseas," he said.
Hundreds of jihadists and their families have reportedly returned to Indonesia since the US-led offensive against the group began back in 2014.
Last year, Turkish authorities said the number of Indonesians captured after the dismantling of Islamic State's caliphate had reached 435 people, including ex-combatants and their families.
Indonesian deputy national police chief General Syafruddin said at least seven former IS fighters were arrested in Turkey last year who had since been detained by Indonesian authorities.
"They have not been released yet," General Syafruddin told local media.
General Syafruddin added that Indonesians should not be worried about the returnees, but he warned that terrorism was still a lingering threat.
Important to differentiate between various returnees
After interviewing dozens of jihadist returnees, Dr Solahudin said that most of them had returned after becoming disillusioned with Islamic State's ideological propaganda and the harsh realitity on the ground.
"Some of them told me that they came to Syria because recruiters promised them with good salary and living under (Islamic) shariah," he said.
"However, the leader of the Indonesian IS group in Syria never distributed the food allowances, hence many of them decided to quit IS after believing there was corruption within the organisation."
Dr Solahudin said even though it was likely the government had arrested most of the Islamic State returnees, the returnees had not been properly charged with terrorism offences yet due to legal issues.
"There are only five IS returnees that have been arrested and charged with planning terror attacks in Indonesia, and another man charged with facilitating IS returnees to conduct terror atacks at home," he said.
"Other reasons why authorities had not arrested jihadists returning to Indonesia is because many were considered to be not dangerous enough and were therefore put into de-radicalisation program run by the National Anti-Terrorism Agency."
Dr Solahudin said it was also important to pay attention to the various affiliations and motivations among differing jihadists returning to the country, and to recognise when a returnee is simply Muslim.
"In general the non-IS jihadists, such as the Salafis, consider jihad in Indonesia as illegitimate becasue they already see Indonesia as Muslim country," he said.
He added that many Muslims were returning from the region after completing tasks such and delivering humanitarian aid, and that was critical to differentiate genuine returnees from those who had been fighting.